Monday

OMU: Ancient History 4

The remainder of my general history of the Original Marvel Universe is compiled from my own OMU chronologies and the later sections of Robert Wicks’s “Unofficial Chronology to the Marvel Universe.” Further content has been culled from online sources, such as the Appendix to theHandbook of the Marvel Universe. By this point, Mr. Wicks’s timeline is broken down according to the amount of time passed between the event in question and when the Fantastic Four gained their powers, in order to accommodate Marvel’s infamous “Sliding Time Scale.” The result is a very disjointed timeline in which it is easy to lose the overarching story. Conversely, here we have a clear, straightforward narrative that finally brings Marvel’s fractured history into a cohesive whole.

Note: The following timeline depicts the Original Marvel Universe (anchored to November 1961 as the first appearance of the Fantastic Four and proceeding backward from there. See previous posts for a detailed explanation of my rationale.) Some information presented on the timeline is speculative and some is based on historical accounts.


Bringing you up to speed with… The True History of the Original Marvel Universe!


Part Seven: The Modern Era

1902
Adrian Toomes is born on Staten Island in New York City.

Samuel James North is born.

Gus Mustin is born.

1903
In Madrid, Spain, Death manifests in human form in an attempt to destroy Dracula once and for all. However, each time Death arranges for Dracula to be killed, the vampire is resurrected. Finally admitting to having no power over the undead, Death offers Dracula a truce. Even so, Death notes that there are still plenty of vampire hunters out there.

1904
Thaddeus E. Ross is born.

Philip Masters is born in Dragorin, Transia, near Wundagore Mountain.

1905
Karl Amadeus Mordo is born in Varf Mandra, Transylvania, the son of a Transylvanian nobleman named Nikolai and his wife Sara, the daughter of German Viscount Heinrich Krowler. All three adults are practitioners of black magic.

A member of the mystical race of the Neuri discovers a family of gypsies trapped in the snow and uses his powers to save their lives. However, the greedy family takes the Neuri prisoner so they can exploit his magical abilities. In time, the family members start killing each other off, until only two brothers remain. The Neuri will remain their prisoner for the next 70 years.

Ivan Kragoff is born in Saint Petersburg, Russia.

Vernon Van Dyne is born.

1906
Johann Schmidt flees from the crowded orphanage, intending to live by his wits on the streets. However, he soon proves to be inept at both begging and thieving and is often victimized by older boys. Schmidt takes refuge in lightless cellars and crypts, sometimes spending weeks at a time in total darkness. He becomes fascinated by the strange visions his mind conjures up in the dark.

1907
Heinrich Zemo is born at Castle Zemo in Germany, the son of a German nobleman.

David Fortunov is born in New York City.

Justin Hammer is born in Surrey, England.

1908
The exiled Inhuman Phaeder discovers a colony of Deviants, and falls in love with Morga, a Deviant considered ugly by her race’s standards but quite attractive to the Inhuman. Shortly after, they produce a son, Maelstrom. Phaeder and Maelstrom will eventually leave the Deviants and begin traveling the world incognito.

Ulysses Klaw is born in Vlaardingen, the Netherlands.

Howard Stark is born.

1910
John Falsworth, embittered that his older brother Montgomery has become the new Lord Falsworth and inherited the bulk of their father’s estate, travels throughout Europe seeking his fortune.

Ben Parker gets a job at a Coney Island amusement park. He hopes to woo May Reilly, though she thinks of him as just a friend.

Having been a recluse since accidentally causing the death of his brother, Isaac Christians begins to come out of his shell and befriends Buster Henderson and Elaine Willoughby.

Philip Masters and his parents immigrate to America from Transia when Philip is six years old.

Acting on the orders of her father, Viscount Krowler, Sara Mordo kills her husband Nikolai. She then takes her son Karl Amadeus back to Germany, where Krowler tutors the boy in the black arts of sorcery.

1911
May Reilly is aggressively courted by the debonair small-time crook Johnny Jerome. May’s friend Ben Parker confronts them after Jerome kills a shopkeeper during a robbery. Thus learning of his criminal activities, May refuses Jerome’s marriage proposal, so he flees. Outside, Jerome is shot in the leg by the police and taken into custody. May turns to Ben Parker for comfort and soon falls in love with him.

Sir Denis Nayland Smith, an agent of the British government stationed in Burma, first crosses paths with the international criminal mastermind Fu Manchu, beginning a lifelong rivalry between them.

Sergei Kravinoff is born in Tsaritsyn, Russia.

1912
Stephen Strange is born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, to Eugene and Beverly Strange. They are a very well-to-do family.

Dracula finally gains his revenge on Jonathan Harker by killing him and his wife Mina. Their son, Quincy Harker, dedicates his life to destroying all vampires.

1913
May Reilly marries Ben Parker at a church in Brooklyn, New York.

Timothy Aloysius Cadwallader Dugan is born in Boston, Massachusetts.

Luchino Nefaria is born in Rome, Italy.

Frank Hall is born in Banff, Alberta, Canada.

1914
John Falsworth, making his way through Transylvania, seeks out Dracula. Falsworth believes that he might find some way in which he can enslave Dracula and bend the vampire to his will. However, Dracula easily overcomes Falsworth and drinks his blood. Falsworth dies, and three days later rises from the dead as a vampire. Subjugated to Dracula’s will, Falsworth is ordered back to London to wreak havoc on the country from which Dracula had fled decades before.

With the outbreak of the First World War, the British government asks Montgomery, Lord Falsworth to assume the costumed identity of Union Jack. His one-man commando-style tactics are extremely successful against the German army.

The vampire John Falsworth, in order to help destroy England, offers his services to the German government. The Germans give the vampire the code-name Baron Blood and a bat-like costume with which to terrify his victims. Baron Blood soon becomes the Germans’ greatest secret weapon, murdering a number of top British army officials.

Ernest St. Ives is drafted into the army and sent to fight in France. He reluctantly leaves his wife and daughter behind, vowing to return to them one day.

J. Jonah Jameson is born in New York City.

Herbert Edgar Wyndham is born in Manchester, England.

Eugene Judd is born in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan.

1915
Nick Fury is born in New York City to Jack Fury and wife.

Michael Twoyoungmen is born on the Sarcee Indian Reservation outside Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

1916
Dawn Fury is born in New York City to Jack Fury and wife. Some months later, Jack Fury leaves his family and travels to England, intent on becoming a fighter pilot in the war, unaware that his wife is pregnant with their third child.

Bruce Dickson is born.

Basil Sandhurst is born in Kittery Point, Maine.

Roger Willis is born to Eric Willis, the immortal guardian of the Casket of Ancient Winters, an Asgardian artifact.

1917
Karl Kaufman, an American citizen of German heritage and an experienced pilot, assumes the costumed identity of the Phantom Eagle so that he can fight in the war without endangering his parents, who are now living in Germany. He fights heroically for the Allies, and becomes known as one of the greatest aerial pilots of the time.

Later, the Phantom Eagle encounters the Hulk, who has been sent back in time by Kang the Conqueror.

Union Jack and the Phantom Eagle team up with the French adventurer known as La Chevalier Cramoisi (the Crimson Cavalier) and a duo of British adventurers, Sir Steel and Silver Squire, as Freedom’s Five to fight the German forces. They work together occasionally throughout the remainder of the war. One of their greatest adversaries is Baron Blood, who always manages to escape them.

Isaac Christians grows heartsick when his beloved Elaine Willoughby marries Buster Henderson and, lying about his age, joins the army to prove himself as a soldier. However, on his first day in combat, Christians flees from the battle, only to be caught in the woods by a German infantryman. As fate would have it, he is saved by Henderson, whose own unit has been massacred. They take refuge in a farmhouse, which is soon surrounded by enemy soldiers. Henderson charges out the door and dies in a hail of bullets, while Christians stands frozen with fear. Rescued by American forces, Christians is ashamed of his cowardice. A few months later, he receives word from home that his mother has died.

Now the latest Baron Russoff, Gregor marries a girl named Maria, the daughter of another Transylvanian noble family.

Sergei Kravinoff is brought to America by his parents, who are fleeing the Bolshevik takeover of Russia. The formerly aristocratic family is forced to live in poverty. His mother will eventually go insane.

Gus Mustin lies about his age to join the army and is sent to fight in Europe. During his first battle, he is exposed to an experimental chemical weapon which triggers a latent mutation. He is soon given a medical discharge and sent home to his family farm. A few months later, he discovers he has gained superhuman strength. His father convinces him to keep his abilities a secret.

Ernest St. Ives, the sole survivor of his unit, is caught in an explosion that sends him plummeting into an ancient subterranean cavern. He lands in a pool of strange fluid just as mustard gas comes billowing into the chamber. The interaction of the two chemicals grants St. Ives a kind of immortality and makes any contact with his skin lethal. He interprets his experience as having fought off Death itself.

Elizabeth “Betsy” Ross is born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Bentley Wittman is born.

Dino Manelli is born in Italy. While he is still a child, his family immigrates to the United States.

Jake Fury is born in New York City to Jack Fury and wife.

1918
During the last few weeks of the war, Union Jack investigates a number of murders caused by Baron Blood. During their ensuing fight, Union Jack wounds the vampire with a silver dagger. Baron Blood then flees the country.

Jack Fury is killed in combat.

Near the end of the war, the Phantom Eagle attempts to get his parents out of Germany. However, before he can take to the skies, he is discovered by the German pilot Hermann von Reitberger, who shoots the Phantom Eagle and his family to death. However, through unknown means, the Phantom Eagle’s spirit remains on Earth, determined to have revenge on Reitberger. One week after his death, the Phantom Eagle appears in the skies in a ghost plane and shoots down Reitberger. However, Reitberger survives the crash, but is now too frightened to fly. For decades, the Phantom Eagle’s spirit will haunt Reitberger, who will always manage to find some means of escape.

With the end of the war, Union Jack is officially retired by the British government. Lord Falsworth accepts the decommissioning of his costumed identity and eventually marries.

Disgusted by the war, Nathaniel Omen, a submarine captain, convinces his crew to leave the surface world behind to live in the ocean’s depths. Over time, their vessel is greatly enlarged and equipped with advanced technology. Omen also finds a way to genetically engineer his crew’s offspring to better survive in the deep-sea environment. Their submarine will not surface again for nearly fifty years.

Gabe Jones is born in New York City.

Izzy Cohen is born in Brooklyn, New York, to Irving and Selma Cohen.

William Nasland is born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Wilson Fisk is born in New York City.

Boris Bullski is born in Makeyevka, Ukraine.

Cornelius van Lunt is born.

Gregory Russoff is born in Transylvania, eldest son of Baron and Baroness Russoff.

1919
Paul Destine, a young man with psychic abilities, joins a traveling carnival and uses his powers as the show’s mentalist. Destine is very curious about his mental abilities and uses every opportunity to study and research his powers and how to increase them. In the course of his studies, Destine learns of the race known as the Ancients, whom he believes were also mind-readers. Seeking to find the lost site of the Ancients’ civilization, Destine signs up with the Oracle, an American ship captained by Leonard McKenzie, which is on an expedition to Antarctica. Once in Antarctica, Destine and McKenzie discover the lost site of the Ancients’ city. While trying to free the ancient technology from the ice, Destine inadvertently triggers an avalanche. McKenzie escapes unharmed, and, believing Destine to be dead, he and his crew resume their journey. However, Destine survives and discovers the Serpent Crown, encased in the substance within which the Ancients had placed it, resting near him. Placing the Serpent Crown on his head, Destine finds his injuries instantly cured. The crown also greatly increases his psychic powers, as well as transforming him into a bigger, stronger man. Using one of the Ancients’ devices, Destine places himself in suspended animation in order to allow his psychic powers to grow and develop.

Meanwhile, clearing a path through the ice fields off Antarctica using dynamite, McKenzie and the Oracle inadvertently cause damage to the undersea city of Atlantis. The Atlantean princess Fen is assigned to organize a search party to investigate the cause of the explosions. However, Fen is very adventurous and undertakes the mission alone. Taking with her a potion which allows her to breathe air for up to five hours at a time, Fen heads for the surface. Boarding the ship out of curiosity, Fen is discovered and brought to Captain McKenzie. After learning that the blasts were not meant as an act of war, Fen becomes attracted to McKenzie. She spends the next few months aboard the Oracle with him, and the two are soon married. The Atlanteans become very concerned over Fen’s long absence and investigate her whereabouts. Emperor Thakorr, discovering that his daughter is aboard the Oracle, believes Fen to be held on the ship against her will. The Atlanteans attack the ship, killing most of the crew. Leonard McKenzie is believed to be among the dead, and a distraught Fen is returned to Atlantis.

Discharged from the military, Isaac Christians cannot face returning home to Virginia and instead makes his way to Paris, France, where he becomes obsessed with a prostitute named Germaine. When his lover eventually abandons him, Christians goes into a profound depression.

When Ernest St. Ives finally returns home from the war, his wife embraces him before he can stop her. She dies instantly due to his touch of death. His daughter screams in horror, and St. Ives flees, never to return.

Having spent the war in prison, Johann Schmidt is released and finds a job doing menial labor for a Jewish shopkeeper. Schmidt becomes obsessed with his employer’s daughter Esther when she shows him a small kindness. Overcome with lust, Schmidt makes clumsy attempts to woo her. When Esther spurns his sexual advances, Schmidt kills her with a shovel. He flees into the night, experiencing euphoria for the first time in his life.

Robert Frank is born in St. Louis, Missouri, to Dr. Emil Frank and wife.

Jeff Mace is born in Brooklyn, New York.

Maynard Tiboldt is born in Vienna, Austria, to circus owners Fritz and Lola Tiboldt.

Elihas Starr is born in Queens, New York.

1920
Fen gives birth to Namor, a mutant hybrid of Homo sapiens and Homo mermanus. Namor, which means “Avenging Son,” is accepted by the Emperor despite the fact that he is half “air-breather.”

Leonard McKenzie recovers from his injuries and returns to the United States, but the story he tells is dismissed as the ravings of a disturbed mind. Unable to secure work, he is soon driven into bankruptcy. He is unaware that Fen was pregnant at the time of their separation.

Isaac Christians leaves France and wanders Europe before moving east to India, where he becomes the disciple of a guru called Vishnu Dass. Experiencing a spiritual awakening, Christians travels throughout the region with his guru, ministering to the poor.

A small plane crossing the Atlantic Ocean enters a fog bank and strikes the floating island of Aerie, home of the Bird-People, the avian Inhumans who had seceded from Attilan long ago. The crash has only one survivor, an infant boy. The Bird-People’s leader, King Aerivar XVIII, decides to raise the boy as one of their own, and declares him to be the Heir of Cheiros. Called Red Raven because of his bright red hair, the boy is given artificial bat-wings and an anti-gravity pack so he can join his adopted family in the sky.

Viscount Heinrich Krowler meets the young Adolf Hitler. Krowler comes to believe that Hitler has great potential as a politician.

Percival Pinkerton is born in England.

Madeline Joyce is born in Washington, D.C.

Louise Grant is born in Hoboken, New Jersey.

Wilbur Day is born in New York City.

1921
Steve Rogers is born in New York City to Joseph and Sarah Rogers.

Baron Gregor Russoff obtains the Darkhold scrolls from the sorcerer Taboo and binds them back into book form. He also begins translating it and transcribes much of its content into his ancestor Grigori’s diary, which he then uses as his own diary. His studies of the evil tome cause him to be afflicted by the ancestral curse of lycanthropy, and he begins turning into a werewolf. He is able to hide this from his wife Maria, though it causes a growing rift between them. Furthermore, Gregor begins spending more and more of their money on his dark pursuits, causing financial hardship for the family.

Edwin Jarvis is born.

Robert Ralston is born in Louisville, Kentucky.

1922
While in the Himalayas, Isaac Christians receives a letter from home informing him that his father has died and he is needed to take over the family business. Christians is reluctant to leave his guru, but Vishnu Dass convinces him to take what he has learned back to Virginia. After hiking out of the mountains, he makes his way back to Christiansboro, where he continues to read books on mysticism and the occult.

Reed Richards is born in Central City, California, to Nathaniel and Evelyn Richards.

Victor von Doom is born in Latveria to Werner and Cynthia von Doom.

Jonathan Juniper is born.

1923
Viscount Krowler sends Karl Amadeus, now Baron Mordo, to Tibet to become the disciple of the legendary sorcerer known as the Ancient One. Though he is aware of Mordo’s corrupt nature, the Ancient One hopes he can teach Mordo a better way.

Otto Octavius is born in Schenectady, New York.

Norman Osborn is born in Hartford, Connecticut.

Leland Owlsley is born.

Anthony Druid is born.

1924
Harris Moore is born in New York City.

Michael Morbius is born in Greece.

Jason Wyngarde is born in England.

Alexander Gentry is born.

Miles Warren is born in Brooklyn, New York.

1925
Benjamin J. Grimm is born in New York City to Daniel and Elsi Grimm.

Jacqueline Falsworth is born to Lord and Lady Falsworth.

Klaus Voorhees is born in Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

Nathan Garrett is born in London, England.

Jimmy Woo is born.

Peggy Carter is born in Richmond, Virginia, to Harrison and Amanda Carter.

1926
Logan, a mutant with animal-like senses and a rapid healing factor, leaves his home in Canada to sail around the world. In midwinter, his ship barely survives an intense storm as it moves through the Drake Passage beneath the southernmost tip of South America.

Upon graduation from the United States Military Academy, Thaddeus Ross marries Karen Lee, the daughter of an Army captain.

While in Rome, Dracula runs afoul of local gangster Big Nick Diablo, who sends a succession of hitmen out to kill him. However, the mobsters are unfamiliar with vampires, so their bombs, knives, and Tommy guns prove ineffective. Dracula turns the assassins into vampires along with Big Nick’s bodyguards, then orders them all to rip their boss to shreds.

James Buchanan Barnes is born in Shelbyville, Indiana.

Cain Marko is born in Berkeley, California, to Kurt and Marjory Marko.

Calvin Zabo is born in Trenton, New Jersey.

Peter Petruski is born in Gary, Indiana.

Samuel Smithers is born in London, England.

Gregor Shapanka is born in Szombathely, Hungary.

Dirk Garthwaite is born in New York City.

Christopher Summers is born to Phillip and Deborah Summers.

1927
Logan arrives in China where he meets a young woman named Rose. They have an adventure that leads them into a futuristic city in another dimension, possibly K’un-Lun.

Ted Sallis is born in Omaha, Nebraska.

Chen Lu is born in Lanzhou, China.

1928
Herbert Edgar Wyndham, now a London-based geneticist, begins experiments on cellular mutation and artificial evolution. Wyndham is invited to the International Conference on Genetics held in Geneva, Switzerland. There, Wyndham meets Jonathan Drew, an American zoology student at Yale University. Also at the Geneva Conference are Wladyslav Shinski of Poland and Arnim Zola of Switzerland, as well as the German scientists Abraham Erskine and Basil Frankenstein. After the conference, Wyndham is given a blueprint for breaking the genetic code by Phaeder, the exiled Inhuman. The blueprints are the essential ingredient Wyndham needs to continue his research in artificial evolution. Wyndham is eventually successful in artificially evolving a dog into humanoid form. However, the dog-man quickly escapes from Wyndham, and when spotted by local villagers, it is shot and killed.

Jessica Drew is born in London, England, to Jonathan and Merriem Drew.

Leaving their two sons in a Transylvanian boarding school, Baron and Baroness Russoff close up their ancestral castle and move to their estate in the small neighboring country of Transia, land which includes Wundagore Mountain. Gregor leaves the bound scrolls of the Darkhold in the castle library, but takes with him his diary, into which most of the spells have been copied.

Fred Raymond, an expert on flameproofing, is working for Phineas T. Horton, who is conducting experiments on asbestos. Shortly after leaving Professor Horton’s employ, Raymond marries Nora Jones, a scientist who had been exposed to radium. Nine months after their marriage, Nora gives birth to a mutant son, Thomas “Toro” Raymond. As Thomas grows up, his parents will discover that he is immune to fire.

Leonard Samson is born in Tulsa, Oklahoma.

Leopold Stryke is born.

Norbert Ebersol is born in Dayton, Ohio.

Carl Creel is born in New York City.

Sebastian Shaw is born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Valentina Allegra de La Fontaine is born in Italy.

1929
Charles Xavier is born in New York City to Brian and Sharon Xavier.

The man known as Magnus is born in Poland.

In Philadelphia, the Strange family is fairly well insulated from the effects of the stock market crash. As the Great Depression begins, they remain wealthy and comfortable. The family members feel little sympathy for the less fortunate.

Evelyn Richards dies.

J. Jonah Jameson begins working as a copy boy in the offices of the Daily Bugle.

Phillip Masters discovers radioactive clay at Wundagore Mountain in Transia.

Jonathan Drew’s wife Merriem inherits a small piece of land in the nation of Transia, near Wundagore Mountain. Learning that large tracts of adjacent land are for sale by Baron Gregor Russoff, Drew purchases the land to add to their estate. Included in the land is Wundagore Mountain itself.

Namor is raised by his mother, Fen, and his grandfather, Emperor Thakorr. Namor is openly adored by the Atlanteans, especially his playmate and companion Dorma, who will secretly grow to love Namor. However, some Atlanteans become jealous and secretly hostile towards Namor, not only because he is the future heir to the throne but also because he is a hybrid between Homo sapiens and Homo mermanus. A small number, such as his childhood friends Meranno and Byrrah, resent his pink skin, but they normally keep their feelings to themselves, fearing the Emperor’s wrath.

In China, Logan meets a young man named Chang. They are photographed together on a pier in front of a three-masted sailing ship.

Moira Kinross is born in Scotland to Lord and Lady Kinross.

Samuel Sterns is born in Boise, Idaho.

Milos Masaryk is born in Bratislava, Czechoslovakia.

Peter Corbeau is born.

1930
Stephen Strange graduates from high school and enters the University of Pennsylvania, intent on becoming a medical doctor.

Nick Fury and his friends routinely brawl with the notorious Yancy Street Gang, enabling Nick to develop his signature no-holds-barred fighting style.

Herbert Wyndham and Jonathan Drew begin construction of a small research laboratory on Wundagore Mountain in Transia. During construction, the two discover deposits of uranium. They decide to mine the ore to finance the construction of their research station. Now with nearly unlimited funds, they contract German astrophysicist Horace M. Grabsheid to design their “Citadel of Science,” asking him to make the facility space-worthy.

One night, Drew’s daughter Jessica is frightened by the appearance of Baron Gregor Russoff in his werewolf form. Investigating, Wyndham is contacted again by Phaeder, who has trained a number of Moloid Subterraneans to serve in both the mining of the uranium and the construction of the citadel.

Logan travels to Japan, where he becomes close friends with a man named Bando Saburo. From Bando, Logan learns to appreciate Kabuki theater.

Wilson Fisk earns fifteen dollars by setting fire to a factory, committing his first murder in the process.

One of Merlyn’s chosen guard leaves Otherworld and takes up residence on Earth, where he assumes the identity of James Braddock.

Robert Bruce Banner is born in Dayton, Ohio, to Brian and Rebecca Banner.

Sean Cassidy is born at Cassidy Keep in Ireland.

Jericho Drumm and his twin brother Daniel Drumm are born in Port-au-Prince, Haiti.

Owen Reece is born in New York City.

Zebediah Killgrave is born in Rijeka, Yugoslavia.

Bruno Horgan is born in Queens, New York.

Emil Blonsky is born in Zagreb, Yugoslavia.

Jonathan Powers is born in Hoboken, New Jersey.

Henry Peter Gyrich is born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

1931
Six months after the Subterraneans begin working for Herbert Wyndham and Jonathan Drew, Jessica Drew collapses from radiation poisoning. She is placed in a cryogenic tube to slow down her cellular damage, and Dr. Drew administers a treatment he has devised from spider extract. However, because the treatment will take months to be effective, Drew decides to keep her in stasis so that the radiation poisoning won’t do any more damage to her. Within the stasis tube, Jessica Drew ages at an extremely slow rate.

Upset about her daughter’s condition, Merriem Drew goes for a walk and is killed by the werewolf Gregor Russoff. Wyndham discovers her body, but tells her husband that she must have been killed in a fall. Jonathan Drew has been suspicious of the Subterraneans, and Wyndham doesn’t want him to conclude that they had attacked Merriem.

In search of Merriem’s killer, Wyndham is attacked by the werewolf, but the sunrise causes the creature to retreat. Jonathan Drew, distraught over the death of his wife and his daughter’s sickness, returns to England, leaving Jessica’s care to Wyndham. Now alone, Wyndham experiments with treating Jessica with his prototype genetic accelerator. He realizes her course of treatment will span many years. Worried about further werewolf attacks, Wyndham constructs a suit of silver-plated armor to protect himself. A month later, the werewolf enters the citadel and kills one of the Subterraneans. Wyndham manages to capture and contain the beast, but the death of one of their own causes the Subterraneans to abandon the citadel, which is near completion.

After Gregor Russoff returns to human form, Wyndham offers to take responsibility for restraining Russoff’s bestial alter-ego in exchange for the opportunity to study his bizarre condition. Gregor agrees and soon reveals to Maria that he has a “sickness” and is going to stay at the Citadel of Science for treatment. Although she remains living in the house nearby, he never sees his wife again. He arranges for his eldest son, Gregory, to assume the baronetcy upon his maturity. Then, he withdraws completely from the outside world. Ultimately, Wyndham’s studies of Gregor, including biopsies taken during both of his states, prove inconclusive. Nevertheless, Gregor remains in Wyndham’s care, helping him put the finishing touches on the research facility.

Logan begins to study the martial arts under a ninja master named Ogun, whom he soon comes to regard as a father-figure. In the process, Logan becomes an enemy of The Hand, a cult of ninja assassins.

Walter Langkowski is born in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

1932
Industrialist Howard Stark has a mansion constructed at 890 Fifth Avenue in New York City.

Agon, head of the ruling Inhuman Council of Geneticists, makes significant advances in the prediction of Terrigen effects on Inhuman genes. Agon convinces his wife, Rynda, to expose herself to Terrigen while pregnant. Agon and Rynda also persuade their brothers and sisters to expose their children to Terrigen while in utero. Months later, Blackagar Boltagon is born to Rynda. In infancy, Black Bolt demonstrates energy manipulative powers which he is too young to control. To protect the citizens and the city of Attilan, he is placed within a soundproof chamber. Within the chamber, he will be educated and learn how to control his powers, but this will take many years.

Wilson Fisk, now the leader of a small gang of criminals, rapidly increases his power base through his organizational skills. He eventually becomes successful enough to invest in legitimate businesses.

James MacDonald Hudson is born in London, Ontario, Canada.

William Baker is born in Queens, New York.

Curt Connors is born in Coral Gables, Florida.

Seth Voelker is born in Kenosha, Wisconsin.

St. John Allerdyce is born in Sydney, Australia.

Rachel Van Helsing is born.

1933
“Dutch” Mallone, a gangster living in Forest Hills, New York, is arrested by Eliot Ness and charged with tax evasion. Mallone spends the rest of his life in prison, but it is long rumored that before he was arrested he stashed away millions of dollars. In fact, Mallone had hidden the money in one of the walls of his Forest Hills home. Mallone’s house will later be bought by Ben and May Parker.

Adolf Hitler and his Nazi Party come to power in Germany.

Baron Heinrich Zemo, a young German scientist, offers his services to the Nazi government as a designer of new technology and weaponry for the military and intelligence services.

David Fortunov, a private detective based in Los Angeles, California, becomes a celebrity as an adventurer-for-hire under the name Dominic Fortune.

James Braddock meets his future wife, Elizabeth. Within a year, they are married.

Shanna O’Hara is born in Zaire, Africa, to American parents, Gerald and Patricia O’Hara. From her mother, Shanna receives an inhabiting spirit, an ancient mystical entity known as the Queen of the Pride, that lies dormant within her.

Quentin Beck is born in Riverside, California.

Paul Duval is born in Fontainebleau, France.

Eric Williams is born in Paterson, New Jersey, to Sanford and Martha Williams.

1934
Horace M. Grabsheid and his infant son Robert immigrate to America following the death of his wife and daughter, for which he blames the Nazis. Grabsheid, a Jew, legally changes his name to Matthew Grayson. Concerned about raising his son in a world where such hatred and prejudice exist, Grayson begins monitoring radio waves from outer space. He also begins making plans to construct a rocket which will carry him and his son into orbit, planning to stay in space until the end of the coming world war, which he sees as inevitable. Eventually, Grayson makes radio contact with the Uranian Eternals. Still despondent after their discovery of a grand unified theory of everything, the Uranians are eager to hear news of their native planet. Then, they send Grayson the technical knowledge he needs to build a spaceship capable of interplanetary travel. The Eternals persuade Grayson to make the trip to Uranus, so they can study his mortal genes in hopes of discovering a method by which to terminate their own existence. Fearful of retribution from Nazi spies and believing Uranus to be a perfect society, Grayson begins construction of the spaceship in his own back yard.

Stephen Strange graduates from college and enrolls in the University of Pennsylvania Medical School.

Prince Namor of Atlantis sprouts fin-like wings on his ankles that, he soon discovers, grant him the ability to fly through the air.

J. Jonah Jameson becomes a full-time reporter for the New York Herald Journal-Express, but when he doggedly pursues a story on police corruption, William Walter Goodman pursuades him to return to the Daily Bugle. Six weeks later, Jameson is distraught when a young copyboy is killed by a bomb meant for Jameson, but Goodman convinces him to fight for what he believes in. Jameson confronts the corrupt police officer and endures a brutal beating in order to get a confession. Impressed, Goodman takes Jameson under his wing. Riding high on his success, Jameson marries his long-time girlfriend Joan.

Notorious gangster “Machine Gun” Martin escapes from prison only to stumble upon a Skrull slave ship. He is captured by the alien slaver and transported to the planet Kral in the Andromeda Galaxy. Martin’s bellicose antics inspire a fad among the Skrulls to imitate his “gangland” culture, and before long the practice has spread all across the planet.

Baron Wolfgang von Strucker, a Prussian nobleman, is recruited by the Nazi government’s intelligence services. However, on an early mission, Baron Strucker’s attempt to assassinate a United States senator is thwarted by Dominic Fortune.

Fritz Tiboldt, owner, manager, and ringmaster of Tiboldt’s Circus in Austria, becomes a staunch supporter of Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party.

Brian Banner becomes convinced that his son Bruce is a mutant “freak” possessed of superhuman intelligence.

Natalia Alianovna Romanova is born in Stalingrad, U.S.S.R.

Medusalith Amaquelin is born on the island of Attilan to Quelin and Ambur of the Royal Family of the Inhumans.

Tania Belinskya is born in Leningrad, U.S.S.R.

Triton is born on the island of Attilan to Mander and Azur of the Royal Family of the Inhumans.

Max Dillon is born in Endicott, New York.

Ebenezer Laughton is born in Rhinebeck, New York.

MacDonald Gargan is born.

1935
In Berlin, Johann Schmidt manages to get a job as a bellboy at a nice hotel. When Adolf Hitler comes to stay one night, the dictator sees in Schmidt a hatred for all mankind and decides to mold him into the perfect Nazi. Recognizing Hitler as a kindred spirit, Schmidt readily agrees to accept the Führer as his master. Impressed by the man’s ruthlessness, Hitler personally oversees Schmidt’s training as a Nazi agent and gives him a blood-red skull mask to wear. Codenamed the Red Skull, Schmidt is made into a symbol of Nazi power and intimidation, and is answerable only to Hitler himself.

Herbert Wyndham revives Jessica Drew from suspended animation for a period of one year to continue treating her for radiation poisoning. Since neither he nor Gregor Russoff have experience caring for young children, Wyndham hires a nurse from the local village to watch over Jessica between sessions in the prototype genetic accelerator. The nurse is disturbed by the nature of Wyndham’s experiments.

James Braddock purchases Braddock Manor, which the family had sold some years before, and moves in with his new bride.

Quincy Harker succeeds in destroying Lilith, daughter of Dracula. As a point of honor, Dracula attacks Harker at the opera, crippling him and nearly killing his wife, Elizabeth. Undaunted, Harker builds a wheelchair containing an anti-vampire arsenal. Due to her unique nature, Lilith spends the next three decades wandering England as a disembodied spirit.

American intelligence agents S.J. North and George C. Cooper join Chinese revolutionary Mao Zedong during the Long March of the Red Army.

Carol Danvers is born in Boston, Massachusetts, to Joseph and Marie Danvers.

Bobbi Morse is born in San Diego, California.

Gorgon is born on the island of Attilan to Korath and Milena of the Royal Family of the Inhumans.

1936
Reed Richards begins taking college-level courses at the California Institute of Technology.

Brian Banner murders his wife Rebecca, seriously traumatizing their young son Bruce. With his father committed to a mental institution, Bruce is taken in by his aunt.

Steve Rogers is orphaned. With no other living relatives, he must struggle to get by on his own.

Logan enters the final stage of his ninja training with Ogun, in which his sensei uses quasi-mystical psychic powers to imprint himself on his student’s mind. When the process threatens to overwhelm Logan’s personality, he rebels and breaks free of Ogun’s influence. Disillusioned, Logan leaves Japan, not expecting to ever return.

Upon reaching the age of 18, Gregory Russoff becomes the new Baron Russoff, graduates from school, and returns to the family’s ancestral castle to live.

Henry Pym is born in Elmsford, New York.

Tony Stark is born on Long Island, New York, to Howard and Maria Stark.

Walter Newell is born in Gloucester, Massachusetts.

John Jameson is born in New York City to Jonah and Joan Jameson.

Maximus is born on the island of Attilan to Agon and Rynda of the Royal Family of the Inhumans.

Helmut Zemo is born in Leipzig, Germany, to Baron Heinrich and Hilda Zemo.

David Cannon is born in Kansas City, Missouri.

Abner Jenkins is born in Baltimore, Maryland.

Georges Batroc is born in Marseilles, France.

Erik Josten is born in Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

Jamie Braddock is born in England to James and Elizabeth Braddock.

Karla Sofen is born in Van Nuys, California.

Giulietta Nefaria is born in Rome, Italy, to Count Luchino Nefaria and his wife Renata, who dies in childbirth. Count Nefaria arranges for his daughter to be raised in New York City by the wealthy financier Byron Frost, who launders money for Nefaria’s Maggia syndicate. She is renamed Whitney Frost and brought up unaware of her true parentage.

1937
Ben Grimm’s older brother Daniel is killed in a street gang fight.

Logan and soldier-of-fortune Eugene Judd both fight in the Spanish Civil War. While there, they become friends with news correspondent Ernest Hemingway.

While exploring the Himalayas, Wendell Rand wanders into the extradimensional realm of K’un-Lun, where he saves the realm’s ruler, Lord Tuan, and his son from the dragon Shou-Lao the Undying. The dragon gravely injures Rand during its retreat, so Lord Tuan carries him into his city, where he is nursed back to health by the beautiful maiden Shakirah. Out of gratitude, Lord Tuan adopts Rand into his House of K’ai and names him as heir to the throne of K’un-Lun. Tuan’s son, a few years younger than Rand, is embittered by this decision, and his hatred for his adopted brother only grows when Rand and Shakirah are married. Within a year, they have a daughter, Miranda Rand-K’ai.

Dominic Fortune and his girlfriend, casino owner Sabbath Raven, travel to New York, where they thwart a Nazi scheme to use comic books for fascist propaganda. Fortune is then hired by the Police Commissioner to rescue a socialite from undead mobsters.

Japan invades China, initiating the second Sino-Japanese War.

Biochemist Arnim Zola discovers a cache of Deviant scientific papers on genetic research in his ancestral castle in Switzerland. After deciphering the Deviant language, Zola begins experiments on creating artificial life.

John Kowalski, a Polish immigrant, has won the Medal of Honor while serving in the United States Marine Corps. However, he is framed for espionage and convicted of high treason by a military tribunal. Stripped of his citizenship, Kowalski is forced to return to Poland.

On Christmas Eve, Dominic Fortune saves the British ambassador from a kidnapping/assassination plot.

Matt Murdock is born in New York City to Jack and Grace Murdock.

T’Challa is born in the remote African kingdom of Wakanda to its chieftain, T’Chaka, and his wife N’Yami, who dies in childbirth.

Carl Lucas is born in the Harlem neighborhood of New York City.

Simon Williams is born in Paterson, New Jersey, to Sanford and Martha Williams.

Jennifer Walters is born in Los Angeles, California, to Morris and Elaine Walters.

Francis Castiglione is born in Queens, New York, to Mario and Louisa Castiglione.

Karnak is born on the island of Attilan to Mander and Azur of the Royal Family of the Inhumans.

David Angar is born in San Francisco, California.

1938
Stephen Strange earns his MD and begins an internship at a major hospital. He meets another intern named Robinson, and they form a professional friendship, though Strange remains rather self-centered. Strange soon realizes he finds it difficult to care about his patients at all. Then, his mother dies after a long illness.

Dominic Fortune prevents a power-hungry newspaper magnate from betraying the United States to the Japanese military, then stops a disgruntled movie star with a device that causes earthquakes. Fortune and Sabbath Raven then help Timothy “Dum-Dum” Dugan save his circus from being taken over by an unscrupulous businessman.

Matthew Grayson and his young son Robert leave Earth for the planet Uranus. Upon arrival, they are greeted by the Eternals with open arms. The Uranians secretly scan the Graysons, hoping to discover a key to ending their own immortal existence. The Eternals share with Grayson their knowledge of the grand unified theory of everything, and provide him a fully-functioning laboratory. As he grows up, Robert Grayson becomes very close to a young female Eternal named Lilli.

Dane Whitman is born in Gloucester, Massachusetts.

Elektra Natchios is born in Greece to Hugo and Christina Natchios.

Angelo Unuscione is born in Milan, Italy.

Arthur Parks is born in New Brunswick, New Jersey.

Hannibal King is born.

Sharon Carter is born in Richmond, Virginia, to Harrison and Amanda Carter.

Maria Trovaya is born in Budapest, Hungary.

1939
Private detective Thomas Halloway, a true renaissance man, dons a red and blue costume to fight crime as the Angel. Wishing to do more than he could as a gumshoe, Halloway uses his fighting skill and wide-ranging knowledge to smash numerous crime syndicates and other menaces to public safety.

Professor Phineas T. Horton, one of the pioneers in the fields of artificial intelligence and robotics, finally creates a fully-functional android in his Brooklyn, New York, laboratory, one which mimics virtually all of the organic functions of a human being, including independent thought. Horton intends to use the android to make himself wealthy. However, a flaw in the photo-electric solar cells which cover the android causes its skin to burst into flame upon contact with air, although the android remains unharmed. After revealing his creation to the public at a news conference, Horton is pressured into containing the android until a means can be found to control its flame. Horton reluctantly does so, sealing the android inside a tube submerged in concrete. However, Horton provides the android with audio devices so that it can learn of the human world. The android spends weeks thus trapped, until a crack in the concrete allows a small amount of oxygen to penetrate the android’s capsule. Igniting its flame, the android frees itself. Inadvertently causing property damage as it explores the city, the android douses itself in a swimming pool. Called the Human Torch, the android soon learns to control its flame and becomes a successful crime-fighter. However, refusing to allow itself to be exploited for profit, the android distances itself from Horton. The Human Torch then establishes a human identity, naming himself Jim Hammond and entering the New York Police Academy. Horton is subsequently ostracized by the scientific community due to the destruction and panic that the Human Torch caused. Furthermore, claiming that Horton could not control his experiments, the government impounds his equipment and chemicals.

His internship completed, Stephen Strange enters a surgery program and is trained in neurosurgery, for which he demonstrates a great talent. His mentor is Dr. Kenneth W. Ward, a top neurosurgeon, part-time explorer, and collector of occult antiquities. Recognizing each other’s talents, they become close friends.

Eugene Judd discovers the mystical Black Blade of Baghdad. Upon touching the scimitar, Judd releases the spirit of an ancient Persian sorcerer named Razor, who had been imprisoned within the sword centuries before by his fellow wizards. Razor attacks Judd, and Judd quickly learns that the weapon allows Razor to absorb a portion of his victim’s lifeforce, manifested physically as a shrinking in stature. Razor boasts that he can repeat the process until his victim vanishes into nothingness. However, Judd manages to use his own mystical knowledge to draw Razor inside his body and trap him there. Because Razor had struck Judd with the scimitar several times, Judd finds himself reduced to only 3 ½ feet tall. The presence of Razor within his body causes Judd incredible pain, but the mystical energies he has absorbed cause Judd to age very slowly.

Herbert Wyndham revives Jessica Drew again to continue her treatments. Unable to find any villagers willing to come to the Citadel of Science, Wyndham supervises her care personally. They develop a close father-daughter bond. At the end of the year, Wyndham places Jessica back into suspended animation, unaware that the cryogenic process completely erases her memory.

Gerald O’Hara accidentally kills his wife while trying to shoot a leopard, and subsequently sends his traumatized daughter Shanna to live with relatives in the United States.

Brian Falsworth, the son of the Union Jack, disagrees with his father regarding Britain’s non-interference policy towards Nazi Germany, believing Hitler is doing good things for the German people. Brian goes so far as to travel to Germany with his friend Roger Aubrey, but is shocked to learn the truth about the Third Reich.

Adolf Hitler’s Germany invades Poland, kicking off World War II. The Nazis begin taking over Polish cities. Thousands of Poles, Jews, and Gypsies living in the area are rounded up and sent to Nazi work camps. The family of Magnus begins to fear for their lives. During the invasion, John Kowalski is killed, but his cursed spirit is damned to an eternity as Death's servant. Meanwhile, Baron Wolfgang von Strucker is transferred to full military service. Still in the country when war is officially declared, Brian Falsworth and Roger Aubrey are arrested and sent to separate prison camps.

Newspaper reporter Mark Todd goes to China to cover the Sino-Japanese War. There, he stumbles upon a mysterious race of “Skull Men,” who grant him superhuman strength and an invulnerability to fire. Sickened by the carnage he has covered as a reporter, Todd renounces his philosophy of pacifism, dons a red costume and flaming skull mask and attacks the Japanese army as the Blazing Skull.

Fritz Tiboldt is asked by the German government to take his circus troupe to America. Traveling from city to city under the guise of an innocent circus, Nazi agents within the group perform assassinations on U.S. government officials. Fritz Tiboldt is soon nicknamed the Ringmaster of Death.

Meranno, childhood friend of Prince Namor and now an Atlantean research scientist, contacts the German government and betrays the location of the undersea city. The Nazis launch an undersea invasion of Atlantis, wiping out their primitive forces, destroying the Hall of Science, and leaving Emperor Thakorr in a coma. Namor, as acting emperor, banishes Meranno from the realm. Meranno then joins the Nazis, hoping they will provide him with the means to gain vengeance on Namor. After Emperor Thakorr revives, his stepson Byrrah convinces him to send Namor to the surface world. It is Byrrah’s ambition that Namor will never return. Subsequently, Prince Namor makes numerous attacks on the surface world, particularly targeting the city of New York. The New York newspapers dub him the Sub-Mariner.

The Red Skull becomes involved in subversive activities on American soil.

The American government, realizing that war against Germany is imminent, decides to come up with an American counterpart to the Red Skull and assigns Dr. Abraham Erskine to work on Operation: Rebirth, a project dedicated to creating perfect “super-soldiers.” However, fearing that the super-soldiers might one day turn against their creators, Dr. Daniel Schumann proposes Project T.E.S.S (Total Elimination of Super-Soldiers), which involves the creation of an army of robots to be activated only in the event the super-soldiers become a threat. Schumann’s proposal is accepted and he is reassigned to work on a prototype robot.

Susan Storm is born on Long Island, in Glenville, New York, to Franklin and Mary Storm.

Betty Ross is born in California to Thaddeus and Karen Ross.

Bill Foster is born in Los Angeles, California.

Will Talltrees is born in Wolf Point, Montana, to Thomas and Rebecca Talltrees.

Maximillian Q. Coleridge is born.

Mark Scarlotti is born in Cleveland, Ohio, to Anthony and Barbara Scarlotti.

1940
The Human Torch, realizing he could make a better crime-fighter as his super-powered self than as a rookie beat cop, approaches New York Police Commissioner Lewis J. Valentine. While there, the Torch is introduced to policewoman Betty Dean. Commissioner Valentine appoints the Human Torch as New York City’s first legal officer without a uniform.

Brian Xavier is killed in an atomic bomb test while working on the Manhattan Project. His colleague, Kurt Marko, marries Brian’s widow Sharon. Marko’s son Cain joins the family at the Xavier mansion in Salem Center, NY.

T’Chaka and his second wife, Ramonda, travel to South Africa to attend the funeral of her father. She remains behind when T’Chaka is summoned back to Wakanda on an urgent matter. A British hunting expedition has discovered the vibranium mound and requested permission to send samples back to England for analysis, so T’Chaka returns home to negotiate the terms. He decides to allow them to take some samples out of the country, hoping to learn more about the ore’s peculiar properties. However, Ramonda suddenly disappears and, despite his best efforts, T’Chaka is unable to find her. He eventually receives photographs of Ramonda in compromising positions with a white South African man, leading T’Chaka to believe she has betrayed him. He decides to never discuss the scandal with his son T’Challa.

The British share the Wakandan ore samples with some American scientists, and the substance is dubbed “vibranium” due to its unique properties.

Ramonda is held prisoner by a South African official named Anton Pretorius, who will rape her on a regular basis for the next 34 years.

Using Deviant technology, the Atlanteans begin constructing their first warships. They also begin work on creating a giant, monstrous android that will be known as the Behemoth.

Robert Frank, a scientist who has gained superhuman speed in a bizarre incident involving cobra venom and mongoose blood, develops the costumed identity of the Whizzer and becomes a successful adventurer and spy-buster.

Bruce Dickson, a scientist exploring Mount Kalpurthia in the Himalayas, becomes separated from his expedition during a blizzard. Seeking refuge in a cave, the scientist discovers a portal to the ancient city of Kalahia. Dickson loses consciousness, and upon awakening, he discovers that the Kalahians have experimented on him, giving him the ability to make his own body paper-thin. Upon returning to the western world, Dickson establishes himself as the costumed adventurer the Thin Man.

Professor Philo Zog, an extremely wealthy and brilliant inventor, builds a large, powerful robot which he calls “Electro.” The robot is bulletproof, and can even withstand small artillery. It can run at over 100 m.p.h. It can leap into the sky and cover huge distances, and is possessed of tremendous strength. The robot can be summoned by means of a wireless transceiver. Concerned about crime and the degenerating world situation, Professor Zog recruits a dozen men, among them a capable agent named Dick Gardner, to serve as a vanguard against criminals and foreign subversives, using Electro as their main weapon. Zog’s valet, Mr. Burke, and his secretary, Wilkins, help manage and operate the organization.

The Sub-Mariner again attacks New York City in retaliation for the destruction of his home. The Human Torch engages the Sub-Mariner in a battle which causes extensive property damage to the city. Finally, the Torch promises Namor he will attempt to arrange a truce between the surface-men and the Atlanteans.

American civilian Nick Fury, a member of a stunt flying team, is hired by the British military to instruct commandos in the art of parachuting. Among his students is Sam Sawyer, an American lieutenant serving in the British army. Sawyer convinces Fury and his buddy Red Hargrove to accompany him on a search-and-rescue mission in Holland. While there, they meet Timothy “Dum Dum” Dugan, an American working as a circus strongman, who helps them escape from the Gestapo.

Victoria Murdock, better known as the Asbestos Lady, a criminal whose modus operandi involves fire, breaks into the home of Fred and Nora Raymond to force them to develop new ways she can use asbestos in her crimes. However, the Human Torch, suspecting the Asbestos Lady’s plans, witnesses the break-in and captures her gang. Unfortunately, the Asbestos Lady gets away. While at the Raymonds’ home, the Human Torch learns of their son Toro’s immunity to fire.

After nearly 90 years lying in suspended animation, Spencer Keen awakes. Upon clawing his way out of his grave, he finds he has become super-strong and basically invulnerable. He soon stumbles across a plot hatched by a half-Japanese, half-Polish scientist, Professor Maluski, to create a race of zombies to take over the world. After defeating Maluski, the bewildered Spencer is hailed as a “super-hero.” His efforts to explain himself are misinterpreted, and he is dubbed “The Blue Blaze” by reporters. Soon after, Spencer battles an insane scientist named Barko, who has developed a freezing ray, and has him committed to an asylum.

Kevin Plunder is born in London, England, to Robert and Blanche Plunder (Lord and Lady Plunder).

The Asbestos Lady, obsessed with her failure to kidnap the Raymonds, causes a train the Raymonds are traveling on to derail. The train bursts into flames, killing Fred and Nora Raymond. However, their son Toro escapes unharmed. Toro is then taken in by a married team of circus fire-eaters. Hearing reports of a fireproof boy, the Human Torch realizes that it must be the son of the Raymonds. Approaching Toro at the circus, the Human Torch’s presence causes Toro’s mutant abilities to manifest, and he bursts into flame for the first time. The Human Torch then arranges to become Toro’s legal guardian and starts training him in the use of his powers. The two soon become a successful crime-fighting duo.

British Army Lieutenant John Watkins is on a boat in the English Channel when it comes under attack by a Nazi plane, which strafes the boat with machine gun fire. Watkins is hit and falls overboard. When the boat returnes to base, it is reported that Watkins is dead.

The family of Magnus is arrested by the Nazis and forced to stand at the edge of a pit with other families. Then, the Nazis begin shooting them. The terror of the incident prematurely activates Magnus’ mutant abilities, and he unconsciously uses his magnetic powers to change the paths of the bullets, avoiding harm as his family is killed around him. However, the experience so drains him that he falls unconscious. Believing him dead, the Nazis bury him along with the rest of his family, but the boy quickly regains consciousness and claws his way to the surface. The Germans are so astonished that he is alive that, instead of finishing their murderous act, they decide to send the boy to the new labor camp at Auschwitz.

A device invented by Dr. Enoch Mason summons the extradimensional creature named Aarkus, who will spend the next few years on Earth battling evil. The press dubs the mysterious being the Vision.

Red Raven decides to leave his home in the Aerie and explore the world of his birth parents. Appalled at social conditions among ground-dwellers, Red Raven decides to become a crime-fighter.

After many years of research and development, scientists Joel Williams and Joshua Williams, brothers, build a robot with a rubber body filled with an experimental gas, which they can operate by remote control. Their creation is dubbed “Flexo the Rubber Man” and it uses its great speed, astounding strength, and ability to fly to perform spectacular feats.

After sharing many of his adventures, Dominic Fortune’s girlfriend Sabbath Raven disappears. His efforts to search for her are hampered by the Nazis.

The demon Mephisto manipulates a psychic who calls herself “Claire Voyant” into becoming an immortal killer who chooses evil men as her victims. She comes to be called the Black Widow.

Over the summer, the Blue Blaze becomes a sensation, and many local mobsters come to fear their super-strong, bulletproof foe. One such crime boss, called Dr. Gair, employs a Jewish astrologer and magician known as the Star-Gazer, who seemingly creates monsters and death rays to kill the Blue Blaze. However, the Blaze is triumphant and the villains end up dead, much to Spencer Keen’s satisfaction.

Dr. Myron MacLain begins working for the American government to develop a super-metal from which invulnerable tanks can be built. Months later, MacLain falls asleep while attempting to fuse his experimental enhanced steel with a sample of Wakandan vibranium. When he awakes, he discovers that he has succeeded due to some unknown factor having entered the mix, which he is subsequently unable to isolate or reproduce. MacLain pours his new alloy into a disc-shaped mold for testing and finds that, once it hardens, this metal is virtually impervious to harm. He devotes the next decade to trying to duplicate the process, without success.

John Watkins returns to England, having been rescued by a French fisherman and nursed back to health. His commanding officer is greatly surprised, but, since Watkins is legally dead, he is recruited to become a special agent to infiltrate Nazi-occupied countries in Europe and inspire the resistance. He agrees, is given a modified uniform and a mask, and adopts the identity of Citizen V—“V” for Victory. As Citizen V, Watkins returns to France and wages a one-man guerilla war against the Nazis, leaving his calling card—the letter V displayed in whatever manner presents itself—everywhere he goes.

The Williams brothers use the unspeaking Flexo mainly as a servant and to assist them with various research projects. However, when an unscrupulous scientist, a Dr. Murdock, tries to create a death-ray machine using stolen radium, Flexo is enlisted to halt the dangerous scheme. Later, Flexo again comes to the rescue when a German spy, Karl Damos, steals a torpedo-defense device the Williamses have developed for the Navy. Then Flexo is used to stop a series of arsons committed by a fascist calling himself the “Iron Duke.” Josh and Joel Williams, being Jewish, are very concerned about the situation in Europe, especially with Hitler and the Nazis having just conquered France, and they discuss using Flexo as a weapon against fascism. Having come to the attention of the Third Reich, Nazi agents kidnap the Williams brothers and take them to Germany, along with the formula for a new high-explosive they were working on. Flexo is instrumental in rescuing its creators from the Nazis and returning them to the U.S.

A brilliant young Assistant District Attorney named Carl Burgess, inspired by the heroic antics of the dashing Angel, dons a costume and stalks the night to fight crime as the Falcon. Although a pretty good brawler, Burgess proves no match for the city’s criminal element, and after only a few weeks, is beaten to death by a gang of hoods.

As autumn arrives, the Nazis gain their revenge on the Williams brothers by having them murdered. Unable to make Flexo work to serve their cause, the Nazis destroy the robot and burn down the Williams’ laboratory. All their research is lost.

In late autumn, the Blue Blaze battles a villain calling himself Dr. Vortex, who is intent on fanning the flames of war in Europe. Dr. Vortex proves to be a formidable foe, and their struggle is only ended when both men, locked in hand-to-hand combat, tumble into a flooded limestone quarry and drown.

The American government begins recruiting volunteers for the Super-Soldier project. Horrified at the newsreel footage of the war in Europe, Steve Rogers decides to enlist in the American army. However, he is ranked 4-F because he is weak and sickly. Rogers pleads to be accepted, and, overhearing Rogers’ fervent request, General Chester Phillips decides that the frail young man fits the profile as a candidate for Operation: Rebirth. General Phillips offers Rogers a spot in the project, and Rogers readily agrees.

Kyle Richmond is born in Mamaroneck, New York, to Arthur and Penelope Richmond.

Marc Spector is born in Chicago, Illinois, to Elias Spector and wife.

Misty Knight is born.

1941
Steve Rogers is flown to Washington DC, where he meets Dr. Abraham Erskine. After weeks of testing, Rogers is chosen to be the first test subject for the super-soldier process. Minutes after being subjected to the treatment, which includes an injection of the super-soldier serum and an exposure to high-energy “vita-rays,” Rogers emerges as physically perfect as a human being could be. However, a Nazi spy who had been observing the experiment then bursts into the laboratory, killing Dr. Erskine. Since Erskine had never committed the full formula to paper and his few notes are later stolen by Nazi spies, Steve Rogers proves to be the only person to benefit from Erskine’s genius. With the creator of the super-soldier serum dead, the government cuts off all funding to Operation: Rebirth.

With the demise of Operation: Rebirth, Project T.E.S.S. is cancelled as well. Professor Schumann, however, does not give up, but instead continues work on his prototype robot.

Janet Van Dyne is born in Creskill, New Jersey, to Vernon Van Dyne and wife.

The Sub-Mariner and the Human Torch team up for the first time, in order to stop the Axis Powers from constructing a tunnel under the Bering Strait and launching a ground invasion of North America.

Over the next three months, Steve Rogers undergoes rigorous training in many forms of martial arts, fighting techniques, gymnastics, and military strategy. Finally, Rogers is given the code name Captain America, and his first assignment is to stop the Nazi agent known only as the Red Skull. Rogers is also given a costume to both conceal his identity and make him a patriotic symbol, along with a bulletproof steel shield.

The Inhuman exile Phaeder and his son Maelstrom, traveling the world incognito, meet and share knowledge in genetics with Arnim Zola.

Dan Lyons journeys to a Blackfoot Indian reservation to take up the mantle of the elderly Indian hero who once saved his father’s life. After passing a battery of tests of strength, stamina, skill, and intelligence, Lyons is awarded the secret of the Black Marvel, which allows him to reach the pinnacle of human ability. He returns to New York City, designs a black, red, and gold costume for himself, and declares a one-man war against crime.

Inspired by the dashing hero known as the Angel, ham radio operator Jerry Carstairs puts on a blue-and-red costume and goes out to fight crime as the Thunderer, using a microphone/speaker gimmick to frighten his opponents.

Betty Barstow, secretary to private detective Dan Hurley, is on her way to a masquerade ball, dressed in a superhero-style costume, when she stumbles upon a crime in progress. The gang of crooks is so startled by her appearance that they are easily defeated by her martial-arts skills. Thrilled by the experience, she decides to continue as a costumed crime-fighter, and soon comes to be known as the Silver Scorpion.

Elton T. Morrow, a scientist doing research in Antarctica, discovers a giant azure diamond. En route back to America, Morrow’s boat is sunk by Nazi submarines. Gunfire shatters the diamond and hundreds of particles are embedded in Morrow’s skin. He floats half-conscious for days before being picked up by a British destroyer. Upon examination, Morrow discovers that his body has somehow absorbed the diamond particles into itself, giving his skin the hardness and durability of a diamond. Upon reaching America, Morrow becomes the costumed crime-fighter called the Blue Diamond.

United States Navy Lieutenant Peter Noble is a member of the crew of an American submarine that sinks during a training exercise. Desperate to survive, Noble takes an oxygen tank and abandons the ship as it sinks toward the ocean floor. However, rather than being crushed by the water pressure of the deep sea, Noble discovers that his body can withstand it. He soon finds that he can breathe underwater as well. Fearing that he is some kind of freak, Noble does not return to the surface world, but instead eventually happens upon the small undersea kingdom of Neptunia. Accepted by the blue-skinned denizens of Neptunia, Noble eventually becomes their leader.

Professor Zog’s organization is wildly successful, and Electro, painted bright red and yellow, is hailed in the press as “the Marvel of the Age.” However, the Third Reich soon decides to try to steal the secrets of Electro for their own purposes. In an explosive battle between the Nazi commandos and Gardner’s anti-crime syndicate, the robot is utterly destroyed, Professor Zog is killed, and his laboratory is blown up. The surviving foreign agents are jailed, but most of the members of Gardner’s group are killed. The remaining members decide to disband.

Madeline Joyce is visiting her uncle’s lighthouse, which he had recently converted into a science laboratory to study and experiment with electricity. Joyce is exploring the lab when lighting hits the building. Bombarded by thousands of volts of electricity, she is thrown into a week-long coma. Upon awakening, she quickly recovers from her wounds and discovers she has gained super-human abilities. Her exposure to electricity endows her with increased vitality and the ability to negate gravity, giving her the ability to fly. Joyce decides to establish herself as a costumed crime-fighter. Calling herself Miss America, she quickly makes a name for herself as a spy-buster.

The Sub-Mariner, under the influence of an undersea temptress called Rathia, launches another military invasion of the surface world. The Atlanteans attack all over the globe, wreaking havoc on several continents. The Human Torch and Toro repel the Atlanteans from New York City, but are unsuccessful in completely stopping the Sub-Mariner. Finally, after the Atlanteans use whales and immense undersea turbines to create an enormous tidal wave which floods Manhattan, the Human Torch and the Sub-Mariner fight yet again. Namor finally throws off Rathia’s sinister influence and decides to call off the invasion.

During the summer, the indestructible vibranium-alloy disc created by Dr. MacLain is given to Captain America for use as his new shield. Rogers decides to keep the old one in his footlocker. Then, Rogers is assigned to Camp Lehigh as a cover for his activities as Captain America.

Nick Fury enlists in the United States Army. He is assigned to Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, and quickly rises to the rank of sergeant.

Reed Richards is recruited into the Army as a codebreaker.

Inspired by the exploits of Captain America, Daily Bugle reporter Jeffrey Mace assumes the costumed identity of the Patriot. The Patriot gains a solid reputation both through his successful exploits and his weekly news broadcasts.

Meranno, using a combination of Atlantean and Nazi technology, manages to greatly increase his natural strength. Meranno takes the code-name U-Man, and begins fighting alongside the Nazis.

One day, while Captain America is changing in his tent, Camp Lehigh’s base mascot, James Buchanan Barnes, who goes by the nickname “Bucky,” barges in to see Steve Rogers removing his mask. Rogers immediately swears Barnes to secrecy, but the boy begs his idol to train him as his sidekick. For the next several months, Captain America secretly trains Barnes in many forms of unarmed combat.

A strange being dubbed an “ice elemental” is discovered in the Arctic and brought to the United States. The being, given the name “Jack Frost” by the scientists studying him, escapes from the research facility and soon becomes an outlaw and killer vigilante, dispensing his own brand of “cold justice.”

Larry Scott, the son of a convicted murderer who is set to be executed in the electric chair, is convinced that his father is innocent. Scott does everything he can to prove it and save his father’s life. Unfortunately, his efforts fail and his father is executed on schedule. The experience causes Larry Scott to become unhinged, and he dons a hooded cloak and a mask, takes up a scythe, and calling himself Father Time, begins killing criminals, vowing to “make time work against criminals instead of the innocent.”

In a prison camp, Brian Falsworth encounters Eric Schmitt, a German scientist who had been working on a variant of the Super-Soldier serum. Schmitt had successfully completed a version of the serum, but kept it from the Nazis because of their rough treatment of him. Now dying, Schmitt turns the formula over to Falsworth, who drinks the potion and is immediately enhanced to physical perfection. He escapes from the camp, adopts a bizarre costume, and begins operating as the Mighty Destroyer, fighting the Nazis within their own borders. Meanwhile, Roger Aubrey has been turned over to the Institute of Nazi Science and brainwashed and experimented upon. The Institute’s Colonel Dietrich erases Aubrey’s memory and manages to shrink him in size to less than one foot tall.

Captain America assesses Barnes as being worthy enough to join him in combat, and gives him a costume and allows him to participate in missions with him as his sidekick Bucky. Then, Captain America and the Red Skull have their first encounter, and the two quickly become mortal enemies.

The demon Marduk Kurios, calling himself “Satan,” enters Earth’s dimension and disguises himself as a human in the hopes of siring half-human, half-demon children. He seduces and marries a young woman named Victoria Wingate.

Sharon (Xavier) Marko dies. Later, Cain Marko starts a fire in his father’s lab, causing the death of Kurt Marko. Both Cain and his stepbrother Charles Xavier are now orphans.

Clint Barton is born in Waverly, Iowa, to Harold and Edith Barton.

Franz Gerhardt dons a suit of armor and assumes the identity of Komtur, the Teutonic Knight. He comes into conflict with Captain America, the Human Torch, and the Sub-Mariner in three separate incidents while engaged in espionage for the Axis powers.

The Japanese bomb Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. Almost immediately afterwards, America enters World War II. Lieutenant Sam Sawyer is reassigned to the United States Army Rangers. “Dum-Dum” Dugan enlists in the Army and joins Lt. Sawyer’s unit.

With America embroiled in the war, Steve Rogers and Bucky Barnes largely abandon their military cover identities to participate almost full time in the war effort as Captain America and Bucky.

British Prime Minister Winston Churchill visits Washington DC to engage in strategy talks with the American government. The Nazis, wishing to keep these talks from going ahead, send their own super-agent, Übermensch (a.k.a. Master Man), to assassinate Churchill. Captain America, Bucky, the Human Torch, Toro, and the Sub-Mariner learn of the plans and defeat Master Man before he can carry out his orders. Churchill is impressed with the super-heroes, and urges them to set aside their differences for the duration of the war, banding together as the Allies’ unofficial “invaders.” The heroes agree to the proposal, and the Invaders remain together throughout the rest of the war.

Gus Mustin decides to become a superhero, but when he realizes that, though super-strong, he is not invulnerable, he changes his mind. He becomes frustrated that he has never found a way to use his special ability.

Wounded in combat in North Africa, Lt. Sam Sawyer is promoted to captain and assigned administrative duty.

General Chester Phillips orders Captain America to submit to a procedure to implant a package of false memories into his subconscious mind, just in case he should ever be captured by the enemy and tortured for information. The memories will remain dormant unless triggered by extreme trauma.

James Rhodes is born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Heather MacNeil is born in Calgary, Alberta, Canada, to Ramsey and Claire MacNeil.

Scott Lang is born in Coral Gables, Florida.

Jack Monroe is born in Naugatuck, Connecticut.

Drew Daniels is born in Amarillo, Texas.

Fred J. Dukes is born in Lubbock, Texas.

Emma Frost is born in Boston, Massachusetts.

Jasper Sitwell is born.

Edith Harker is born in London, England, to Quincy and Elizabeth Harker.

1942
Captain Thaddeus E. Ross is sent to fight in the Pacific theater of operations, where he soon earns the nickname “Thunderbolt.”

The Invaders prevent U-Man from assassinating Winston Churchill in Bermuda. Soon after, the team battles a Nazi-created monster at Castle Frankenstein in Switzerland. In the end, the monster turns on its creators, Basil Frankenstein and Dr. Kitagowa, and kills them as it commits suicide.

The Red Skull, not content to be a subordinate, begins kidnapping and assassinating a number of Hitler’s top advisors. In this way, the Red Skull quickly rises to become the second-most-powerful man in Nazi Germany.

The Invaders are kidnapped and brainwashed by the Red Skull, although Bucky manages to escape. Under the Red Skull’s orders, the Invaders commit a number of acts of sabotage. Storming into the radio station from which the Patriot airs his weekly broadcasts, Bucky broadcasts a general plea to recruit new super-heroes to fight the brainwashed Invaders. The Blue Diamond, Jack Frost, Miss America, the Patriot, Red Raven, the Thin Man, and the Whizzer all respond to Bucky’s call. They band together to form the Liberty Legion, and soon free the Invaders from the effects of the brainwashing. The Liberty Legion then decides to remain together, serving on the American homefront as spy-busters and crime-fighters while the Invaders focus mainly on Europe.

Lord Falsworth and his daughter Jacqueline befriend the Invaders.

Seeing in Adolf Hitler a kindred spirit, Baron Blood again offers his services to the German government. Beginning a new reign of terror in Britain, Baron Blood is opposed not only by his brother, Lord Falsworth, who once again dons his Union Jack costume, but also by the Invaders. The heroes uncover Baron Blood’s true identity, but during a battle with the vampire, Union Jack’s legs are crushed by a falling boulder. However, Union Jack manages to roll the boulder off of him, and it rolls into Baron Blood, causing the vampire to fall backwards. He is impaled on a stalagmite that contains traces of silver, which causes his body to disintegrate.

Jacqueline Falsworth, having been bitten by Baron Blood, receives a blood transfusion from the android Human Torch. His unique blood somehow combines with the vampire ichor in her system to give her superhuman powers of speed. She assumes the costumed identity of Spitfire and joins the Invaders.

The Invaders battle an armored foe called the Blue Bullet. Then they go to Warsaw, Poland, to rescue the Blue Bullet’s brother, where they encounter a Golem that rescues the team from the Nazis.

Alfie, a Nazi spy posing as a member of the British intelligence establishment, organizes a team of superhuman adventurers known as the Crusaders, planning to discredit the Invaders and assassinate King George VI. William Nasland, the only American in the group, joins as the Spirit of ’76. Roger Aubrey is returned to England to join the team as the diminutive Dyna-Mite. The other members are known as Captain Wings, Ghost Girl, Thunderfist, and Tommy Lightning. Alfie manages to convince the Crusaders that the Invaders are really Nazi agents, leading the two groups into conflict. However, the Invaders manage to uncover Alfie’s plot. The Crusaders, realizing they have been fooled and their powers are derived from Nazi science, disband. Only the Spirit of ’76 elects to continue in his costumed identity to strike back at the Germans.

Giving up his identity as Dominic Fortune, David Fortunov joins the American military.

The Thunderer slips off an icy roof and falls to his death.

Peter Noble attacks a Nazi submarine that comes too close to Neptunia, and in the ensuing battle, many Neptunians are killed. Therefore, Neptunia declares war on Germany, and Peter Noble makes many daring attacks against the Nazis on both land and sea, making use of an enchanted cutlass he has discovered in an ancient shipwreck. Dubbed the Fin, due to his distinctive headgear, Noble is considered a seafaring super-hero by the American press, often compared to the Sub-Mariner–much to Namor’s chagrin. However, after only a few months, the Fin is killed in combat.

The Invaders meet superheroes from the future, the Avengers, who have traveled back in time.

A time-traveling Thing appears in New York and meets the Liberty Legion. They join forces to save the city from an attack by Nazi super-agents Master Man, U-Man, Skyshark, and Brain Drain.

While the Invaders attempt to rescue American comic book artist Biljo White from his Nazi kidnappers, a chemical accident transforms Nazi scientist Frieda Ratsel into Kriegerfrau (a.k.a. Warrior Woman). While his teammates are captured, Captain America meets the Mighty Destroyer and together they rescue Biljo White. However, Captain America is soon recaptured.

Union Jack, Spitfire, and Dyna-Mite parachute into Germany in the hopes of discovering a means to restore Dyna-Mite’s memory so they can find out what happened to Brian Falsworth. When Union Jack and Dyna-Mite are then captured by the Nazis, they are rescued by the Mighty Destroyer, who reveals his true identity to his father. Lord Falsworth is overjoyed to see his son, and the two are reconciled. Lord Falsworth then asks his son to take over the role of Union Jack, and Brian agrees. The second Union Jack then rescues the Invaders, disrupting the wedding of Master Man and Warrior Woman in the process. Afterwards, the new Union Jack joins his sister as a member of the Invaders.

After Colonel Dietrich is captured by the Allies, he returns Dyna-Mite to his original size. Roger Aubrey then decides to take up the abandoned identity of his friend and returns to Germany as the Destroyer.

When teen-agers Gwenny Lou Sabuki and David Mitchell gain super-powers after being kidnapped by Agent Axis, they join Bucky and Toro in a group called the Kid Commandos. Sabuki becomes Golden Girl and Mitchell names himself the Human Top. The group is used more for morale-boosting and fund-raising than for actual combat missions. Bucky and Toro take an extended leave of absence from the Invaders.

The Invaders defeat Baron Strucker and the Teutonic Knight.

After fighting numerous criminals, mad scientists, unscrupulous businessmen, and Nazi spies, The Black Marvel soon becomes the chief nemesis of a gang of mobsters calling itself the Order of the Hood. Eventually, he is captured by the Order of the Hood and tortured to death.

The Asgardian thunder god Thor is contacted by Adolf Hitler and agrees to fight on the side of the German peoples. Battling the Invaders, Thor blasts the new Union Jack with a bolt of electricity. However, upon learning that Hitler is a truly evil person, Thor absorbs back most of the electricity in Union Jack’s body and then returns to Asgard. The mystical energies remaining within Union Jack give him the ability to discharge electrical bolts from his body. These events are witnessed by a time-traveling Victor von Doom.

Called back to the United States, the Invaders rescue the Liberty Legion from an armor-clad German nationalist called the Iron Cross. At the conclusion of the battle, the Iron Cross drowns in the ocean.

A Japanese spy calling herself Lady Lotus begins recruiting foes of the Invaders into a group she calls the Super-Axis. She uses her mutant powers of psychic domination to force her recruits to obey her.

The Whizzer and Miss America resign from the Liberty Legion and join the Invaders.

The Blazing Skull is killed in action while battling the Japanese army.

The vampire Baron Blood is revived by Japanese soldiers and briefly battles the Union Jack and Spitfire, but is forced to abandon the fight to travel to New York to join Lady Lotus’s Super-Axis.

The Silver Scorpion runs afoul of a mob boss who discovers her secret identity as Betty Barstow and has her murdered, along with her boss, Dan Hurley.

The Invaders battle the Super-Axis in Chicago. Lady Lotus’s team consists of U-Man, Baron Blood, Master Man, and Warrior Woman. She uses her psychic powers to control the Human Torch, but he comes to his senses in time to destroy her plans. The Super-Axis is defeated, but Lady Lotus escapes capture. She later meets the Yellow Claw in New York’s Chinatown.

Gabrielle Haller, a young Jewish girl, is imprisoned in the Nazi death-camp Dachau. Unlike her family, Haller is kept alive to serve as a prostitute to the camp commandant. Baron Wolfgang von Strucker then orders that a cache of Nazi gold be hidden in Kenya, Africa. He also orders that the location of the gold be revealed only to Gabrielle Haller, so that after the war she could lead Strucker to the location. However, the process that plants the information in Haller’s brain renders her insane, and she retreats into a waking coma. The location of the Nazi gold is lost.

Ben Grimm becomes the leader of the Yancy Street Gang.

Larry Scott’s insanity makes him careless, and Father Time becomes the final victim of his own deadly scythe.

A British destroyer and a German U-boat sink each other in the South Atlantic. Survivors from both vessels find their life rafts carried by currents through the tunnels to the Savage Land, where they establish separate encampments and resume their war. Cut off from the outside world, they will continue fighting for decades.

The Soviet soldier Ivan Petrovitch Bezukhov finds Natalia Romanova, a young girl who is related to the Russian royal family. Surviving the battle of Stalingrad, Ivan Petrovitch vows to raise and care for “Natasha” as she grows up.

John Grey begins teaching at Bard College near Annandale-on-Hudson, New York. He and his wife Elaine have their first child, Sara Grey.

Wilson Fisk, now a wealthy criminal mastermind, marries a woman named Vanessa. One year later, Vanessa gives birth to their son, Richard.

Sergeant Nick Fury proves himself a capable leader, so when Captain Sam Sawyer organizes the First Strike Force, a squad of United States Army Rangers that comes to be known as the Howling Commandos, he arranges for Sgt. Fury and Corporal “Dum-Dum” Dugan to be assigned to this team. Captain Sawyer also becomes one of the first officers to break the military’s non-integration policy by inviting Private Gabe Jones, an African-American, to join the elite strike force. Sawyer also recruits “Reb” Ralston, Izzy Cohen, Dino Manelli, and “Junior” Juniper. The Howling Commandos soon gain fame and success for their brave and often foolhardy combat style. Future members will include Percival Pinkerton, Eric Koenig, and Ken Astor.

Major Reed Richards is assigned to the O.S.S. and sent to Europe, where he soon meets Sgt. Fury and his Howling Commandos. Later, Richards is sent to the Pacific theater.

Nick Fury meets Pamela Hawley during a London air raid, and is smitten with her. Soon after, “Junior” Juniper is killed in action. Then, the Howling Commandos first battle Baron Wolfgang von Strucker. They attempt to kidnap Baron Heinrich Zemo, the Nazi weapons designer, but Zemo’s death-ray is too powerful for them and he escapes. Next, the Howling Commandos are ordered to kidnap Adolf Hitler himself. Although their mission is successful, they discover upon returning to base that they have only nabbed a doppelgänger.

Sgt. Fury and his Howling Commandos meet Captain Simon Savage and his Leatherneck Raiders.

Captain America fights with Baron Zemo, dousing him with his own Adhesive X, thereby causing his hood to be permanently adhered to his face.

Sgt. Fury and his Howling Commandos assist Captain America and Bucky on a mission to rescue a group of Allied prisoners-of-war.

Sam Wilson is born in Harlem, New York, to Paul and Darlene Wilson.

Daimon Hellstrom is born to Victoria Wingate Hellstrom and the demon Marduk Kurios.

Patsy Walker is born in Centerville, California, to Joshua and Dorothy Walker.

Crystalia Amaquelin is born on the island of Attilan to Quelin and Ambur of the Royal Family of the Inhumans.

Mortimer Toynbee is born in York, England.

Parnival Plunder is born in London, England, to Robert and Blanche Plunder (Lord and Lady Plunder).

Todd Arliss is born in Pasadena, California.

Frank Schlichting is born in Racine, Wisconsin.

Dominic Petros is born in Crete.

Donna Garth is born in New Orleans, Louisiana, to Simon and Miranda Garth.

1943
Sgt. Fury and his Howling Commandos help stop the demon Dormammu from conquering the earth by defeating his minions, Viscount Heinrich Krowler and Sir Anthony Baskerville, with help from a time-traveling Doctor Strange.

Nick Fury’s girlfriend Pamela Hawley is killed by the Nazis, just as he’s about to propose to her. Nearly insane with grief, Fury tracks down the general responsible for the air raid and kills him in revenge.

The Howling Commandos battle the Red Skull, but the fight is inconclusive. The Red Skull escapes.

While parachuting into Germany, Nick Fury receives an injury to his left eye, which causes it to begin to slowly degenerate.

Infuriated by Baron Strucker’s many defeats by Sgt. Fury, as well as Strucker’s failure to destroy the French village of Cherbeaux, Adolf Hitler orders Strucker’s death. However, the Red Skull, who is making plans to supplant Hitler as the head of the Nazi Party, aids Strucker in fleeing to the Far East. The Red Skull orders Strucker to organize a power base there. Upon reaching Japan, Strucker becomes the mastermind behind a secret society bent on world domination. This society makes a number of successful raids on war plants and equipment storehouses throughout the world and becomes known as HYDRA.

Deeming HYDRA strong enough to carry out his plans, Strucker assassinates the head of the organization and becomes Supreme Hydra. Strucker also breaks off his ties with the Red Skull. HYDRA then constructs a fortress on a small island in the Pacific Ocean to serve as the organization’s principal base, which they call Hydra Island.

Captain Savage and his Leatherneck Raiders attack Baron Wolfgang von Strucker at his Hydra Island headquarters. As a result of the battle, Hydra Island is destroyed. Strucker travels to Africa, where he captures Nick Fury. Strucker tortures Fury while the Howling Commandos think he’s been killed in a plane crash. However, Fury escapes, meets up with the Howlers, and begins his recovery.

Baron Strucker retreats to the island of Madripoor, where he kidnaps Natasha Romanova, the young Russian child in the care of Ivan Petrovitch Bezukhov. Captain America is assigned to meet up with Ivan and to track the whereabouts of Baron Strucker. While rescuing Ivan from an attack by the ninja assassins known as the Hand, Captain America is himself rescued by Logan, who is trying to prevent Hand infiltration of Madripoor. The three team up to rescue Natasha from the Nazis and the Hand. With Logan’s help, Captain America and Ivan escape Madripoor, and Ivan and Natasha make their way back to the Soviet Union.

Ivan enrolls Natasha in the Leningrad State Choreographic School, the oldest and most prestigious ballet academy in Russia. He visits her whenever he is able, depending on his service in the Soviet army.

Logan volunteers for service in the Canadian Army, becoming a paratrooper.

Stephen Strange begins dating a woman named Madeleine Revell, whose life he saved on the operating table after she was involved in an automobile accident. Madeleine, a translator at the French consulate in New York, is at first intensely infatuated with the brilliant young surgeon.

Ben Grimm leaves the Yancy Street Gang and joins the Air Force to become a fighter pilot.

Because America is at war with Italy, Mario and Louisa Castiglione decide to change their family name to Castle. Thus, their son Francis becomes known as Frank Castle.

Herbert Wyndham revives Jessica Drew again, but is heartbroken to discover she has no memory of him. He is unable to discover the cause of the memory loss before having to return her to suspended animation.

In Smithville, Pennsylvania, bank teller Fred Hopkins gains superhuman strength upon being exposed to a radioactive meteorite. Inspired primarily by the Invaders, he becomes a costumed superhero called the Thunderbolt, serving his local community for the next three decades.

Baron Strucker organizes a secret group of scientists to create high-tech weaponry for his subversive organization HYDRA. These scientists will eventually become known as A.I.M. (Advanced Idea Mechanics)

Captain America exposes the subversive activities of the Tiboldt Circus. Fritz Tiboldt and his underlings are deported back to Germany.

The Crimson Commando, Stonewall, Super Sabre, and the Yankee Clipper, four costumed adventurers, team up to handle missions against the Axis powers considered too “dirty” for the Invaders to undertake.

Over the period of a year, four renowned scientists, Maris Morlak, Carlo Zota, Wladyslav Shinski, and Jerome Hamilton, fake their own deaths and meet up with each other on a remote North Atlantic island where an archaeologist friend of Hamilton’s has discovered an ancient Deviant stronghold. These scientists, calling themselves the Enclave, plan to use their combined scientific knowledge to rule the world. Over the next ten years, the scientists, using Deviant technology, complete work on their complex, which they will christen the Beehive.

Aarkus, a.k.a. the Vision, having grown more and more disgusted with the human race, finally decides he can stomach no more after a particularly gruesome case on Halloween. He leaves the earth, never to return.

The parents of Valentina Allegra de La Fontaine are both murdered by the Nazis for having given aid and comfort to the Italian Resistance movement. Devastated by her loss, Val joins the Resistance and wages a reckless guerilla war against both the Nazis and the fascist Italian troops who remain loyal to Mussolini.

Captain America and Bucky travel to California, where they participate in the filming of the movie serial The Adventures of Captain America while trying to capture a Nazi saboteur.

Henry P. McCoy is born in Dunfee, Illinois, to Norton and Edna McCoy.

Greer Grant is born in Chicago, Illinois.

Bonita Juarez is born in Taos, New Mexico.

Martin Blank is born and soon orphaned.

Morgana Blessing is born to Emil and Regina Blessing.

1944
Captain America and Bucky flush out the saboteur, special-effects man Lyle Dekker. Dekker escapes capture, but for his failure he is tortured by the Red Skull until he goes mad.

Lieutenant Ben Grimm is captured by the Japanese, but soon rescued by Captain Savage and his Leatherneck Raiders. A few weeks later, Ben meets Sgt. Nick Fury and the Howling Commandos, assisting them on a search-and-destroy mission.

Captain America befriends Jimmy Woo, which inspires the young soldier to follow a career path that will lead him into the FBI.

After a year-long romance, Stephen Strange proposes marriage to Madeleine Revell, but she declines, having realized that she does not want to spend her life with a man possessed of his greed, ambition, and cold-heartedness. Her stinging rejection causes Strange to become even more arrogant.

Captain America teams up with Sgt. Fury and his Howling Commandos to rescue Howard and Maria Stark from the Red Skull.

The Invaders, the Howling Commandos, the Destroyer, and Logan all participate in the Allied invasion of Europe on D-Day.

Appalled by the inhumanity he has witnessed during the war years, Red Raven decides to return to the Aerie, the floating city of the Bird-People. However, upon returning he discovers that the Aerians plan on taking advantage of the turmoil caused by the war to conquer the human race, whom they believe to be their inferiors. Red Raven, believing that the humans would easily win such a war, decides to save the Bird-People from extinction by releasing a gas which places the entire populace of the island in suspended animation. Red Raven places the Bird-People in chambers which will keep them alive, then uses the island’s control systems to sink the entire island beneath the Atlantic Ocean. Red Raven then programs a timer which will automatically raise the island from the depths after 20 years and release everyone from suspended animation. Red Raven then places himself in suspended animation.

Captain America and Bucky battle Nazis at Greymoor Castle in England. Soon after, Bucky reaches his 18th birthday and decides to retire his costumed identity to join the U.S. Army as a regular soldier. No longer content to serve as Cap’s junior partner, Bucky resigns from the Invaders and sets out to prove himself as a man.

As he reaches puberty, Sean Cassidy discovers he has the mutant ability to create powerful sonic waves with his voice. Fearing that others would regard him as a freak, Cassidy decides to keep his strange abilities a secret from everyone. Unbeknownst to him, his older cousin Thomas Cassidy also has mutant abilities, being able to focus blasts of force and heat through wood. Sean Cassidy will eventually become heir to the estate of the Cassidy clan after he wins it in a bet against his older cousin.

Baron Strucker discovers the presence of aliens called Gnobians hiding in a town in Germany, and kills everyone in the village to keep the secret. He also kills most of the aliens and seizes their technology for use by HYDRA.

Peggy Carter, an American member of the French Resistance who is Captain America’s girlfriend, is captured by the Gestapo and held prisoner in Paris. During the city’s liberation by the Allied forces a shell explodes nearby and Carter is knocked unconscious. Although she recovers from her wounds, the explosion leaves her amnesiac. Carter is eventually discovered by friends in Belgium and sent home to her family in America. Since Captain America had only known her by her code name, the heartbroken hero has no way of discovering her condition or whereabouts.

Logan joins the joint U.S.-Canadian commando unit known as the Devil’s Brigade. His reckless fighting style soon forces him to realize that his rapid-healing ability has its limits.

At the Warsaw Uprising, the Nazis finally catch up to John Watkins, and a bullet to the head ends the career of Citizen V.

The Yankee Clipper is killed in action, leaving her partners to act as a trio. Her death leads them to develop deep feelings of bitterness.

Howard Stark oversees Project Tomorrow, an attempt by the U.S. government to create an unstoppable android warrior to be deployed only if America loses the war. The android, codenamed Arsenal, is linked to a computerized guidance system with an artificial intelligence based on the brain patterns of the industrialist’s wife, Maria Stark.

A group of refugees from another dimension crash their escape craft into the Andes Mountains on Earth. After burrowing deep underground, they establish a colony and set about searching for a means to return home. Shunning contact with the native inhabitants of Earth, they come to call themselves “The Others.”

Captain America teams up with Sgt. Fury and his Howling Commandos to stop the Red Skull from unleashing the deadliest virus in history, engineered by the Nazis as a doomsday weapon. However, unknown to the heroes, the sole survivor of the Red Skull’s experiments, an American aviator named Michael Kramer, slips away with the Judas Plague hidden in his genetic matrix.

William Drake marries Maddy Bass.

Johnny Storm is born on Long Island in Glenville, New York, to Franklin and Mary Storm.

Alicia Reiss is born to Jacob and Marcia Reiss.

Wyatt Wingfoot is born on the Keewazi Reservation in Oklahoma to American decathlon champion Will Wingfoot and his wife. Wyatt is the grandson of Silver Fox, chief of the Keewazi tribe of Comanche Indians.

Johnny Blaze is born in Waukegan, Illinois, to Barton and Clara Blaze.

Heather Douglas is born in Los Angeles, California, to Arthur and Yvette Douglas.

Colleen Wing is born to Lee Wing, a Chinese-American college professor, and his Japanese-born wife.

Jerome Beechman and Nekra Sinclair are both born in Los Alamos, New Mexico.

1945
Magnus and a Gypsy named Magda escape from the Nazi death camp Auschwitz in Poland. Magnus saves Magda’s life by killing a guard about to shoot her as the camp is being shut down and the Nazis are retreating. The couple slips off into the woods, then moves south into the Carpathian Mountains. Within a few months, they are married.

Auschwitz is finally liberated by the Russian army. Among the American army personnel present at the liberation is Major Thaddeus E. “Thunderbolt” Ross.

Combat Kelly and the Deadly Dozen go into action against the Nazis, under the command of Captain Sam Sawyer.

Lord Dark Wind, an experienced Japanese fighter pilot, volunteers to run a Kamikaze mission against an American ship. However the explosives aboard his plane fail to detonate and Dark Wind survives, although he is terribly scarred. He is captured by the Americans and held as a prisoner of war.

Swiss biochemist Arnim Zola presents Adolf Hitler with technology that will preserve his consciousness, memory, and brain patterns after his death. Zola also tells Hitler that he has perfected a cloning process. Hitler, intrigued at the possibility that he would be able to live forever through these means, begins funding Zola’s projects and allows the scientist to take cell samples and a record of his brain patterns. Using these, Zola successfully clones Hitler’s brain. Zola then instructs Hitler on how to transfer his consciousness into the cloned brain whenever he chooses.

Infuriated by his constant defeats at the hands of Captain America, the Red Skull orders Baron Zemo to kill the American hero at all costs. Zemo decides to use the theft of an experimental drone plane to bait a trap.

Captain America learns that the Red Skull is constructing doomsday devices to be activated following Germany’s inevitable defeat. Thus, Cap heads to Berlin to stop him just as the Allied air raids are beginning. Cap defeats the Red Skull in hand-to-hand combat, but suddenly the building they are in is hit by a bomb. Cap manages to crawl from the rubble, but the Red Skull is lost. Unknown to Cap, his enemy also survives the explosion, but is thrown into a state of suspended animation when a canister containing an experimental gas ruptures. The Red Skull will lie undiscovered in a subterranean chamber for nearly two decades.

After liberating Diebenwald concentration camp, Captain America returns to England to stop a string of sabotage attempts at Allied bases. At one such base, located on the North Sea, Cap finds Pvt. Bucky Barnes attached to the base security detail.

Allied intelligence alerts Captain America that Baron Zemo is planning to steal the experimental drone plane housed at the very base Bucky is guarding. The former partners agree to team up for old times’ sake. So as not to scare Zemo off, Cap straps his shield to his chest and dons a standard Army uniform to join Bucky on patrol. Soon, Zemo makes his move, reprogramming the plane to fly to Berlin and then launching it. Cap and Bucky race down the runway on a motorcycle and catch up to the plane just as it is lifting off. Determined to prove himself, Bucky leaps aboard the plane and clambers up to its control panel. Cap manages to grab the bottom of the plane, but realizes too late Zemo has booby-trapped it. He yells to Bucky to disengage, but Bucky instead tries to disable the detonator. Then, the plane explodes in mid-air. Bucky Barnes is killed instantly, and Captain America falls into the North Sea. Exposed to the freezing waters, the super-soldier serum in his blood causes Captain America to enter a state of suspended animation. His body is carried by the current up into the Arctic, where it eventually becomes entombed in a large block of ice. In time, it will be discovered by the indigenous people of the region and worshipped as a holy object.

Believing his greatest enemy dead, Baron Zemo then flees to South America, leaving his wife and son behind in Germany. Over the next few decades, Zemo will continue to develop his own plans for world conquest.

American President Franklin Delano Roosevelt dies of a cerebral hemorrhage. With the death of the President, the Invaders go on full alert. The Human Torch and Toro are ordered to assist with the invasion of Berlin. The Sub-Mariner is ordered to the Pacific to aid against Japanese kamikaze bombers. Spitfire and Union Jack are ordered to safeguard British Prime Minister Winston Churchill. The Whizzer and Miss America are ordered to patrol the British coast for Nazi saboteurs. Vice-President Harry S. Truman immediately takes over as America's commander-in-chief.

Baron Blood is killed again after being impaled by a wooden stake. Because John Falsworth was of noble blood, his body is entombed in the Tower of London.

The Nazi death-camp Dachau is liberated by Allied forces. As the Allies are investigating the camp, one half of an alien mystical gem, “the Resurrection Stone,” appears after being sent backwards in time by an alien archaeologist. The gem fragment is found by prisoner Sol Rosenblatt, who discovers it has the power to return the dead to life. However, because it is incomplete, the gem can only return the soul to the dead body. Rosenblatt uses the power of the gem to resurrect his murdered family, who had been killed by the Nazis before the Allies could liberate the camp. In pursuit of the gem fragments, the Avengers journey back in time and the Beast convinces Rosenblatt to hand over the gem fragment. Once in possession of the mystical gem, the Avengers dematerialize.

With the liberation of Dachau, Gabrielle Haller is freed. Upon her release, Baron Strucker orders that she be placed under continuous surveillance, on the chance that one day her sanity returns.

Despite the threat of death, Baron Strucker returns to Berlin, knowing the Red Skull has disappeared. With the Allies winning the war, Strucker seeks to ensure the survival of the Nazi Reich by placing Master Man and Warrior Woman in suspended animation. The two super-agents are hidden in laboratories on opposite sides of Berlin. Strucker then flees the city and returns to Southeast Asia.

Adolf Hitler learns that Russian troops have invaded Berlin and realizes his defeat is imminent. Thus, he prepares to escape by killing his body and transferring his consciousness into the cloned brain constructed by Arnim Zola. However, Hitler is interrupted by the arrival of the Human Torch and Toro, who are intent on capturing Hitler and bringing him to trial. The Torch is forced to incinerate Hitler to stop him from activating a device to destroy the bunker. As he is dying, Hitler successfully transfers his consciousness to the other brain, stored safely away in Zola’s laboratory.

The Daily Bugle discovers that Captain America and Bucky have disappeared. They publish an article, but the American government, wishing to keep this information secret, denies the truth. Nevertheless, Peggy Carter is told of Captain America’s disappearance. Believing her beloved to be dead, Carter becomes extremely depressed and enters a period of prolonged mourning.

President Truman asks the Spirit of ‘76 to assume the role of Captain America. Fred Davis, a young boy who had aided Bucky Barnes in the past, becomes the second Bucky. Serving as members of the Invaders, the second Captain America and Bucky battle the Japanese in the Pacific, the American public believing them to be the originals.

Ivan Petrovich Bezukhov is discharged from the military. His aptitude with electronics enables him to secure a position at the Leningrad Polytechnic Institute, and he becomes even more of a father figure to Natasha Romanova. She shows tremendous promise in ballet, and excels in all her subjects.

Stephen Strange completes his training and enters private practice in New York City. His father dies of a heart attack, but Stephen is too busy to attend the funeral.

Peter Parker is born in New York City to Richard and Mary Parker.

The first atomic bomb is detonated at Alamogordo, New Mexico. The explosion is detected by Eternals living on the moon of Titan. Thanos, son of Alars and Sui-San, develops an interest in Earth and begins closely monitoring the planet.

The Japanese surrender after the nuclear bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, ending the Second World War. With the end of the war, many of the Howling Commandos decide to accept honorary discharges from military service. However, Captain Sam Sawyer and Sergeant Nick Fury remain enlisted.

After the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Jack Frost returns to the Arctic wastes, disgusted by humanity. He is never seen again. Following his departure, the Liberty Legion disbands.

Steve Rogers is officially listed as missing in action. His footlocker, containing numerous personal effects including Captain America’s first shield, is put into storage at Fort Dix in New Jersey. Eventually, the record of its location will be lost.

Bruce Dickson returns to the hidden city of Kalahia in the Himalayas, only to find it has been utterly destroyed. Grief-stricken, Dickson soon discovers that an old enemy, Agent Axis, had learned of the existence of Kalahia and tried to conquer it after Germany lost the war. Unable to subjugate the Kalahians, Agent Axis killed them all and destroyed the city, then fled to parts unknown. Abandoning his identity as the heroic Thin Man, Dickson will spend the next thirty years trying to track down Agent Axis and get revenge.

The second Captain America battles Lyle Dekker at his base near Newfoundland, and foils his plot to release a deadly nerve gas. Dekker never realizes it is not the original Captain America.

With the end of the war, the Crimson Commando, Stonewall, and Super Sabre return to their hometown in Massachusetts and devote themselves to fighting crime there.

Jacqueline Falsworth retires her Spitfire identity. Over the next few years her body will reject the foreign elements which gave her superhuman abilities, and by the end of the decade she will once again be a normal woman. Likewise, Jacqueline’s brother Brian Falsworth retires his identity as Union Jack. His powers will also soon fade as Professor Schmitt’s serum wears off. Brian’s friend Roger Aubrey returns from Germany and gives up costumed adventuring as well.

Ben Grimm enters college at the State University of New York on the G.I. Bill, where he meets both Reed Richards and Victor von Doom. Ben quickly becomes a star of the school football team, and he and Reed become roommates. Reed talks constantly of his ambition to build a spaceship and take it to another star system. Ben laughingly promises that if Richards ever builds it, Ben Grimm will fly it himself.

The U.S. Congress considers using the Arsenal android in the fight against Communism, but Howard Stark convinces President Truman to have Project Tomorrow shut down. Stark then has the android and its computer control system put into storage in a cavern located deep below his Fifth Avenue mansion in Manhattan. The computer, code-named Mistress, goes into hibernation, awaiting an activation signal.

Lord Dark Wind is released from the American prison camp and returned to Japan. His injuries leave him permanently scarred, and as his children are born, he scars them as well. In the years that follow, Dark Wind begins attracting followers to a cult devoted to restoring Japan’s honor.

Fritz Tiboldt and his wife Lola aid the Allies by testifying against the Nazis during the war crimes trials. Eventually, Nazi agents who had gone undercover to avoid prosecution will hunt the Tiboldts down and kill them. Their son Maynard then takes over the family circus and moves it back to America.

One of Hitler’s top scientists, Otto Kronsteig, becomes a fugitive as he flees from the War Crimes Commission. Another Nazi scientist, Gustav Hauptmann, also escapes prosecution for war crimes by finding a powerful patron. A former high-level advisor to Hitler, Nikolaus Geist, saves himself from prosecution by bartering secrets from the German rocket program to the O.S.S.

Simon Garth and his friend Brian Stockwood form Garwood Industries, a wholesale coffee distributor based in New Orleans.

Rick Jones is born in Scarsdale, Arizona. While Jones is still a child his parents die, and he is left with nothing except his father’s guitar. Growing up, Jones is moved from one orphanage to the next for disciplinary reasons. Eventually, he will end up in Quemado, New Mexico, living with his aunt.

Wendell Vaughn is born in Fond du Lac, Wisconsin, to Gilbert and Lisa Vaughn.

Jeanne-Marie and Jean-Paul Beaubier are born in Montreal, Quebec. Shortly after their birth their parents are killed, and the twins are separated. Jean-Paul is adopted by his mother’s cousin, Royal Canadian Mounted Police Officer Louis Martin, who could not afford to adopt Jeanne-Marie as well. The Martins arrange for Jeanne-Marie to be placed at Madame Dupont’s School for Girls in LaVelle, Quebec. Soon afterwards Martin accepts an assignment in Northern Quebec, and he relocates his family there. The Martins lose contact with Jeanne-Marie, and the twins both grow up without knowledge of each other or that they even had a sibling.

Frank Moore is born in Brooklyn, New York, to Harris and Helen Moore.

Alejandro Montoya is born in Madrid, Spain.

Abdul Qamar is born in Saudi Arabia.

Satana Hellstrom is born to Victoria Hellstrom and the demon Marduk Kurios.

Harry Osborn is born in New York City to Norman and Emily Osborn, but his mother dies when he is still a baby. Flash Thompson, Liz Allan, and Gwen Stacy are also born.

1946
The All-Winners Squad, the post-war successors to the Invaders, is formed. The Sub-Mariner, the Human Torch, Toro, Captain America II, Bucky II, the Whizzer, and Miss America are the founding members.

Stephen Strange makes the acquaintance of another doctor, Darryl Berenson, and his beautiful blond wife, Patricia. Strange contemplates pursuing having an affair with the woman, but never actually bothers.

Professor Phineas T. Horton moves to Boston and creates a new android, Adam-II. However, Adam-II rebels against Horton, kidnaps him, and begins creating robot servants. Adam-II develops a plan to substitute congressional candidate John F. Kennedy with a robot duplicate. The Human Torch and Toro come to Boston to visit Horton and are captured by Adam-II. The three of them are rescued by the Patriot. Horton informs the Patriot of Adam-II’s plans, and the Patriot alerts the All-Winners Squad. The second Captain America and Bucky battle Adam-II and his robots. Captain America (William Nasland) is killed, though the dying hero uses a flare to summon the rest of the All-Winners Squad. Inspired by Nasland’s sacrifice, the Patriot dons a spare Captain America costume. As the third Captain America, he manages to foil Adam-II’s plans. Jeff Mace is then accepted as the successor to the role of Captain America, and becomes a full member of the All-Winners Squad. He also partners up with the second Bucky.

Louise Grant, a secretary working for the Mark Mason Detective Agency, develops the masked identity of the Blonde Phantom. She becomes a successful crime-fighter, frequently aiding her boss, detective Mark Mason, who remains unaware of her dual identity.

David Fortunov returns to the United States, but decides not to resume fighting crime as Dominic Fortune. Instead he becomes a car salesman, eventually getting married and having a family.

In K’un-Lun, Wendell Rand fights Davos, son of the martial-arts master Lei Kung the Thunderer, for the right to face the dragon Shou-Lao the Undying and the chance to gain the power of the Iron Fist. Rand defeats Davos, who refuses to yield and accuses Lord Tuan of favoritism when he declares Rand the winner. Lei Kung publicly rebukes his son, prompting Davos to sneak out of the city and challenge the dragon anyway. Davos fails to overcome Shou-Lao and is left weeping in the snow. Lei Kung soon finds his injured son and carries him back to the city to recover. Rand continues his training, intent on besting the dragon and becoming the Iron Fist.

German mercenary Gustav Brandt marries a Vietnamese woman named Lua, who is the sister of Monsieur Khruul, a local crime lord who hates all Europeans. Thus, the Brandts are forced to flee from Khruul. After ten months of living as fugitives, Lua gives birth to a daughter, who will one day be known as Mantis. Eventually, Khruul discovers their whereabouts and orders their house burned to the ground. Lua is killed, but Gustav Brandt, though badly burned and blinded, manages to escape with his infant daughter into the jungle. Days later, Brandt discovers the temple of the Priests of Pama, descendants of Kree monks who worshipped the Cotati. The Priests aid Brandt and his daughter, whom they suspect may be the Celestial Madonna. The two remain with the Priests for years, with the daughter learning their philosophy and martial arts, and the father learning how to see psychically, despite his physical blindness.

Gregory Russoff discovers the Darkhold in his father’s library and begins to study it. Reading of the origins of lycanthropy in the Darkhold under the light of the full moon activates the latent curse inherited from his ancestors, and he is transformed into a werewolf. Unfortunately, the active curse will be transferred to his descendents as well. Gregory devises a way to imprison his werewolf self within the castle tower on each night of the full moon. Only occasionally does he fail to lock himself away in time, in which case his bestial alter-ego terrorizes the countryside. Not long after, Gregory meets an American college student named Laura, through his brother Philip, who had dated her previously, when she comes to Transylvania on vacation. The two fall madly in love and are soon married. Gregory’s mother, Maria, journeys from Transia to attend the wedding. Laura, now Baroness Russoff, leaves school and moves into the family castle. Philip decides to relocate to the United States, where he Americanizes his last name to “Russell.”

On Christmas Day, Thomas Halloway is killed while fighting crime as the Angel.

Scott Summers is born in Anchorage, Alaska, to Christopher and Katherine Anne Summers.

Warren Worthington III is born on Long Island in Centerport, New York, to Warren Jr. and Kathryn Worthington.

Twins Brian Braddock and Elizabeth Braddock are born in England to James and Elizabeth Braddock.

Calvin Rankin is born in Passaic, New Jersey, to Ronald Rankin and wife.

Mary Jane Watson is born to Philip and Madeline Watson.

1947
Aquaria Nautica Neptunia, of the undersea city of Maritanis, sees her hometown destroyed by a gang of criminals using the nuclear torpedoes from a stolen submarine. She adopts the name “Namora,” meaning “the avenging daughter,” and seeks vengeance, aided by her cousin, Namor, the Sub-Mariner.

Jean Grey is born in Annandale-on-Hudson, New York, to John and Elaine Grey.

Victor von Doom is expelled from State University in New York when a forbidden experiment explodes, scaring his face. He then travels to Tibet, where he meets a group of reclusive monks. They provide him with a suit of armor, but the red-hot mask completely destroys his face.

Stephen Strange has built a reputation as a top neurosurgeon, but then crashes his sports car and sustains nerve damage that ends his surgical career. An associate, Dr. Charles Benton, offers him a position as a consultant, but Strange’s pride prevents him from working as anyone’s assistant, and so he spends much of his fortune seeking a cure for his condition.

Charles Xavier graduates from college with a degree in biology. He travels to England to attend Oxford University, where he will fall in love with Moira (Kinross) MacTaggert, an unhappily married student of genetics.

Magnus and Magda become parents as their daughter Anya is born.

Natasha Romanova studies under the legendary ballet instructor Agrippina Vaganova, which she considers to be a great honor. She develops an especially close relationship with another teacher, the prima ballerina Oksana Bolishinko, and comes to look upon her as a mother figure. Ivan Petrovich Bezukhov marries a pretty blonde named Galina, although she and Natasha never become close.

When the portal between K’un-Lun and Earth opens again, Lord Tuan banishes Davos for his sacrilege. Later that same day, Lord Tuan’s son leads Wendell and Shakirah Rand into an ambush by the H’ylthri, in which Shakirah is killed. Rand escapes from the H’ylthri, but, overwhelmed with grief, he is easily led across the bridge to Earth by his rival and left to wander in the Himalayas. When the portal closes, Rand realizes he cannot return to K’un-Lun until it reopens in ten years. Thus, he makes his way to New York City, where he founds a company with businessman Harold Meachum that is immediately successful. Soon, Rand marries the beautiful socialite Heather Duncan and they move into a house on Riverside Drive in Manhattan. Rand also hires the young lawyer Jeryn Hogarth to manage his affairs.

With Wendell Rand, the rightful heir, having disappeared, Lord Tuan’s son achieves his ambition of being the ruler of K’un-Lun when his father dies. Thus, he comes to be known as Yü-Ti, the August Personage in Jade.

Herbert Wyndham revives the amnesiac Jessica Drew for further treatments. He forces himself to remain emotionally distant, knowing she will have no memory of this part of her life. With work on his genetic accelerator nearly completed, Wyndham stays focused on his experiments.

Jericho Drumm leaves Haiti to attend college in the United States, while his brother Daniel decides to follow the ways of voodoo.

After being transferred to the new United States Air Force, Major Thaddeus E. “Thunderbolt” Ross is assigned to the nuclear research facility at Los Alamos, New Mexico. However, Ross, a combat veteran, is dissatisfied with the desk job he has been given.

After a Skrull scout ship crash-lands near Roswell, New Mexico and its occupants are autopsied by the U.S. Air Force, President Truman creates a secret 12-member panel comprised of scientists, military leaders, and government officials to investigate the possibility of extraterrestrial incursions. Among the members are Howard Stark, head of government contractor Stark Industries, and the influential astrophysicist Vernon Van Dyne.

Another “UFO,” a spaceship from the planet Dakkam carrying the infant Wundarr, crash-lands near the Nexus of All Realities in the swamp to the south of Citrusville, Florida. When an elderly couple decides not to investigate, the alien child remains in the ship’s womb-like interior, where he will eventually grow to manhood.

Alex Summers is born in Honolulu, Hawaii, to Christopher and Katherine Anne Summers.

Shiro Yoshida is born in Agarashima, Japan, to Saburo Yoshida and his wife.

John Proudstar is born in Camp Verde, Arizona, to Neal and Maria Proudstar.

Shang-Chi is born in Honan, China, to the international criminal mastermind Fu Manchu and his American-born wife.

Jacob Russoff is born in Transylvania to Gregory and Laura Russoff.

Felicia Hardy is born in New York City to Walter and Lydia Hardy.

Sybil Dvorak is born in Focşani, Romania.

1948
Bobby Drake is born on Long Island in Port Jefferson, New York, to William and Maddie Drake.

When the Whizzer gets Miss America pregnant, they retire from crime-fighting and get married. The couple then begins working as non-costumed security agents at a nuclear power plant in New York. Isbisa, a former enemy of the All-Winners Squad, seeks revenge on the Franks and sabotages the plant. The Franks rush into a high-radiation area to activate the dampening rods that have malfunctioned and are both dosed with high levels of radiation. Madeline Frank later gives birth to a terribly deformed mutant baby which emits toxic levels of radiation. The government persuades the Franks to surrender the baby, Robert Frank, Jr., into its custody. The baby is placed within a specially-designed chamber meant to drain the enormous amounts of radiation he is generating. The boy will remain in the chamber for more than a decade. Distraught over the loss of their baby, the Franks accept a compensation package from the government and decide to tour the world.

The mysterious adventuress known only as Sun Girl bursts on the scene and becomes a worldwide sensation. Her astonishing beauty, unsurpassed martial-arts skill, unparalleled acrobatic ability, and unconquerable will make her the toast of a fascinated public and the bane of a frustrated underworld. In addition to her natural abilities, she employs a number of technological devices as well, which she claims have been provided by admirers in the scientific community. Chief among these is a “sunbeam ray” gun that produces a blinding light.

Richard and Mary Parker, a husband and wife spy team working for the American government, are assigned to infiltrate a Communist spy-ring in Algiers run by the second Red Skull (Albert Malik). The Red Skull learns of the Parkers’ true identities and has them killed. Custody of their son Peter is granted to Richard’s brother Ben and his wife May, who have been keeping Peter when his parents were on assignment.

His financial resources squandered, Stephen Strange hits up Dr. Darryl Berenson for some money. Berenson is angered and gives his former friend the bum’s rush. Strange lets fly with verbal abuse before he is forcibly removed from the clinic.

Bruce Banner graduates from high school and enters college at Pennsylvania State University, pursuing a medical degree.

Logan becomes a field agent for the Canadian Intelligence Corps.

Kurt Wagner is born in the Bavarian Alps to a mutant shape-changer who will later be known as Raven Darkhölme. Everyone present is horrified that the baby has yellow eyes, blue fur, a pointed tail, and deformed hands and feet. Darkhölme is driven off by a superstitious mob, but the baby is taken in by the Gypsy sorceress Margali Szardos, a fortune-teller at a nearby circus. Never officially adopted, Wagner is raised collectively by the circus troupe, with Szardos acting as his foster mother. Despite his strange appearance, Wagner is treated as a sibling to Szardos’s own children, Stefan and Jimaine.

Yuri Ivanovich Bezukhov is born in Leningrad to Ivan and Galina Bezukhov. Natasha Romanova is at first resentful, but soon comes to see him as her baby brother.

Herbert Wyndham perfects his invention, the genetic accelerator, and uses it to transform animals into humanoids. One of his first attempts is to artificially evolve a cow into a humanoid, which he names Bova. Artificially evolving other animals, Wyndham discovers that these “New Men,” as he calls them, are highly intelligent. Meanwhile, sensing Jonathan Drew’s troubled thoughts about Wundagore Mountain, the astral form of Magnus, the sixth-century mage, possesses Drew and takes him back to Transia. Once there, Magnus/Drew aids Wyndham, who has dubbed himself the High Evolutionary, in the training of his New Men in medieval chivalry. Magnus worries that Chthon may one day escape his imprisonment within Wundagore Mountain. The High Evolutionary, wishing to instill in his New Men a code of honor, agrees to the plan. The Knights of Wundagore, as they are called by their masters, begin a long process of training.

Thanos of Titan is on a surveillance mission to Earth when his spaceship is seen by a family making a late-night drive from Las Vegas to Los Angeles. Wanting no witnesses to his activities, Thanos orders the car destroyed, and the blast kills Arthur and Yvette Douglas, but their three-year-old daughter Heather is thrown clear. Discovering what Thanos has done, his father Alars hides Heather Douglas from Thanos’s probes. Then, deciding that his son has become too much of a threat to both Titan and Earth, Alars enlists the aid of his father Chronos, now a near-cosmic-level being. Together they manage to prevent Arthur Douglas’s soul from leaving the mortal plane and create for it a new body from the earth’s soil, investing it with tremendous power. They program their new being with a burning hatred for Thanos and no memory of his previous existence. Re-named Drax the Destroyer, he initiates his relentless pursuit of Thanos. Alars takes Heather Douglas with him back to Titan and places her in a monastery to be raised by the pacifistic monks. As she grows up, Heather is trained in martial arts and how to develop her latent psionic powers. For years, Drax the Destroyer foils many of Thanos’s plans, though he never manages to stop his enemy completely.

Victoria Hellstrom discovers the supernatural identity of her husband. The fact that her husband is a demon calling himself “Satan” drives her mad, and she dies shortly afterwards. Marduk Kurios places his son Daimon in an orphanage, but takes his daughter Satana with him to his own dimension to school her in the use of her demonic powers.

Danny Rand is born in New York City to Wendell and Heather Rand.

Frankie Raye is born in New York City.

Elizabeth Twoyoungmen is born in Calgary, Alberta, Canada, to Michael and Kathryn Twoyoungmen.

Ruth Bat-Seraph is born in Tel Aviv, Israel.

Luther Manning is born in Detroit, Michigan.

Tilda Johnson is born in New York City.

Joseph Fasinera is born in New York City to Vincent and Scarlet Fasinera.

1949
Asgardian all-father Odin, disturbed by his son Thor’s pride and headstrong nature, banishes him to Earth in the mortal guise of lame medical student Donald Blake in order that he might learn humility. Odin chooses a young medical student, Keith Kincaid, as the template for Blake. Odin constructs an almost perfect replica of Kincaid, changing the physical features slightly and giving him a physical handicap. Trapped in Blake’s body, Thor is stripped of his true memories and sent to the campus of the Empire State University School of Medicine, where he immediately enrolls.

After taking a bullet, the second Bucky, Fred Davis, retires from crime-fighting. The third Captain America then forms a new partnership with Betsy Ross, who becomes the second costumed adventurer to be known as Golden Girl.

A gang of mobsters uses an experimental solution to neutralize the flame powers of the Human Torch and Toro. Believing the deactivated Human Torch to be dead, the criminals bury him in the Nevada desert. Toro, temporarily paralyzed, is handed over to the Soviet agents who provided the chemical solution, and is subsequently taken behind the Iron Curtain and brainwashed into becoming a secret weapon for the communists.

Following the loss of several members, the All-Winners Squad officially disbands.

Reed Richards is disappointed when one of his best friends, Milton Ekler, drops out of college to marry his girlfriend. A few months later, Ekler’s son Larry is born, but his wife dies, leaving him to raise his child on his own. Richards makes an effort to keep in touch, and young Larry will eventually come to call him “Uncle Reed,” but he and Ekler gradually drift apart as their career paths diverge.

Ben Grimm graduates from college and returns to the Air Force to become a test pilot.

Walter Langkowski graduates from high school and enters Pennsylvania State University on a football scholarship. There he meets Bruce Banner, who inspires him with his passion for science. After the fall semester, however, Banner transfers to Desert State University in New Mexico and changes his major to nuclear physics. Langkowski decides to major in nuclear physics as well. In New Mexico, Banner meets Peter Corbeau when they become roommates.

Stephen Strange becomes a penniless drifter and alcoholic derelict. While hanging out on the waterfront, he learns of the supposedly miracle-working “Ancient One” in Tibet, and decides to find him in a last ditch effort for a cure. Strange sells the last of his possessions to book passage on a boat to India, from which he crosses into Tibet. Near the end of the year, the Red Chinese army invades eastern Tibet.

Harold and Edith Barton are killed in an automobile accident, and their children Barney and Clint are placed in a state orphanage.

When his wife dies, Professor Lee Wing sends his daughter Colleen to live in Japan with her maternal grandfather, Kenji Ozawa. Colleen is raised in the family’s ancestral home in the mountains of northern Honshu and trained in the martial arts.

After his mother dies, Kyle Richmond is sent to boarding school, since his father is constantly away on business. He soon develops a reputation as a troublemaker.

Sun Girl mysteriously disapperars, and is never heard from again.

Madeline Frank accidentally becomes pregnant again. During her first trimester, she begins to experience serious complications.

Louise Grant, the Blonde Phantom, and her boss Mark Mason are married. Grant then retires from costumed crime-fighting.

Robert, Lord Plunder discovers the Savage Land and finds a large cache of vibranium, which he takes back to England with him. Sadly, he finds his wife Blanche has died during his absence, leaving him to care for their sons Kevin and Parnival. When enemy agents try to intimidate Plunder into revealing the location of his vibranium store, he realizes his sons are in danger. He fashions a medallion-key to his secret vault and gives one half to each boy. Then, sending Parnival into hiding with his trusted butler, Lord Plunder takes Kevin to hide out in the Savage Land. Unfortunately, shortly after their arrival, Plunder is killed by the tribe of Man-Apes led by the savage Maa-Gor. Kevin is rescued by the sabertooth tiger called Zabu and taken to safety in an area shrouded by mystic vapors. These mists slowly enhance Kevin’s strength, agility, and endurance as he grows older.

Ted Sallis enrolls in Stanford University to pursue his Ph.D. in chemistry.

One night, lightning strikes the tower of Castle Russoff, setting the Gregory Russoff werewolf free. The following night, a hunting party comes across the werewolf and shoots him with silver bullets. Upon dying, the werewolf reverts to his human form, confirming the villagers’ suspicions about the Baron. Now widowed and disgraced, Laura Russoff takes her children and flees Transylvania, returning to the United States. She contacts Philip in California, who is glad to help. Lissa Russoff is born in Los Angeles. Laura and Philip find their former romance is rekindled, and they are soon married. Laura Americanizes the children’s last names to “Russell” as well.

Magnus and Magda move to Vinnitsa, Ukraine, as Magda becomes pregnant with twins. Initially, she decides to keep this information secret from her husband, due to their precarious financial situation. As his mutant powers begin to manifest themselves, Magnus runs afoul of the Soviet authorities, who prevent him from rescuing Anya from the burning inn in which she is trapped. As his daughter’s blazing body plummets to the street, Magnus lashes out with his magnetic powers, killing everyone at the scene. Magda is horrified by what her husband has become, and, consumed by grief, terror, and despair, she flees into the night. Magnus goes into hiding to escape the police. Magda makes her way southwest into the Balkans, terrified that her husband will find her.

After the establishment of the People’s Republic of China, one of the more powerful pre-revolution government officials loses everything to the communists. He sets off in search of a way to restore his power and fortune. Wandering China, he eventually comes upon the fabled Valley of Spirits, where he discovers a crashed spaceship and the skeletal remains of its pilot. He spends the next several years mastering the alien technology and deciphering the secrets of the ten rings that the alien wore. The man soon becomes feared throughout China as the implacable Mandarin.

William Baker adopts the alias “Flint Marko” as he embarks on a life of crime.

Ororo Munro is born in New York City to David and N’Dare Munro.

Lorna Dane is born, but weeks later her parents die in an accident and she is adopted by her maternal aunt and uncle.

Jamie Madrox is born in Los Alamos, New Mexico, to Daniel and Joan Madrox.

Dakota North is born to S.J. and Caroline North.

Jim Wilson is born in Los Angeles, California, to Gideon Wilson and wife.

Topaz is born in India to British parents.

Twins Andrea and Andreas Strucker are born to Baron Wolfgang von Strucker.

1950
Stephen Strange meets the Ancient One and his pupil, Baron Mordo, in the Himalayas of northwest Tibet. Although the Ancient One claims to have no cure for Strange’s damaged nerves, the traveler is forced to remain when a blizzard suddenly descends upon them. Left to his own devices, Strange soon stumbles upon Mordo plotting to kill his teacher with sinister black magic. Learning first-hand that the power of such magic is very real, Strange realizes the only way to save the old man is to learn enough spells of his own to overcome Mordo. When he entreats the Ancient One to take him on as a student, the wizened mage reveals he is aware of Mordo’s treachery already and counters the evil spells with the merest gesture, freeing Strange from their effects. The experience leads Stephen Strange to have an epiphany, and he decides to start on a new path in life, devoting himself to the study of the mystic arts.

Paul Destine emerges from suspended animation. Using the increased powers given to him by the Serpent Crown, Destine, now calling himself Destiny, senses the presence of the city of Atlantis off the coast of Antarctica. Through the Serpent Crown, the Elder god Set realizes that his chance for revenge on the Atlantean god Neptune has come, and he mentally compels Destiny to destroy Atlantis. Destiny thus triggers a number of undersea earthquakes. Prince Namor journeys to the surface to investigate and confronts Destiny, but is defeated by the power of the Serpent Crown. Destiny then forces Namor to witness the destruction of his kingdom. Although large numbers of Atlanteans escape, Emperor Thakorr and Princess Fen are among those killed. Destiny then renders Namor totally amnesiac and commands him to fly to New York City. Satisfied, Destiny returns to suspended animation to increase his psychic powers further. The surviving Atlanteans decide to resettle the ruins of ancient Atlantis and spend the next decade roaming the ocean searching for its location. Krang, one of their greatest military leaders, wishes to rule his fellow Atlanteans, but constant attacks by barbarians and predators hamper his ambitions. Eventually, Lady Dorma and Krang become engaged to be married. During this time, Namor lives as a derelict in New York with none of his memories.

Unable to get pregnant, Namora, now living in Lemuria with her husband Talan, seeks out the Atlantean geneticist Vyrra and convinces him to clone her. The resulting baby girl is named Namorita, and is passed off as the natural daughter of Namora and her husband.

As her own pregnancy comes to term, Magda the Gypsy reaches the citadel of the High Evolutionary on Wundagore Mountain in Transia. With the cow-woman Bova acting as midwife, Magda gives birth to twin babies, a girl and a boy, whom she names Wanda and Pietro. Outside the citadel, a supernatural war rages between the High Evolutionary’s Knights of Wundagore and the demon Chthon, who is trying to escape his prison within the mountain. Facing imminent defeat, Chthon senses the awesome latent power within baby Wanda’s mutant body and imbues her with some of his magical energy. Bova notices the baby briefly glows with the same eerie lights flashing in the night sky outside. Believing Chthon will free him from the curse of being a werewolf, Gregor Russoff attempts to use the Darkhold spells in his diary to free Chthon. However, the spectral Magnus possesses Russoff and forces him to read the Darkhold’s Ritual of Banishment, sending Chthon back to his pocket dimension. At the last moment, Chthon lashes out with a magical blast, killing Russoff. Magnus returns to Jonathan Drew’s body and buries Gregor Russoff on Wundagore Mountain. With the threat of Chthon ended, Magnus takes Drew back to England before departing for the astral plane.

As soon as she is able, Magda leaves her twins behind and flees into the night, never to be heard from again. Days later, Robert and Madeline Frank arrive at Wundagore Mountain, seeking a cure for Madeline’s illness from the High Evolutionary. Bova acts as midwife once again, but Madeline dies in childbirth, the result of her highly radioactive mutant baby, which is stillborn. Hoping to make some good out of this tragedy, Bova offers Magda’s twins to the grief-stricken Robert Frank, but he leaves Wundagore as fast as his superhuman speed can take him. Realizing the twin babies need a human family to nurture them, the High Evolutionary takes them to a gypsy camp at the foot of the mountain and charges Django Maximoff and his wife Marya to raise them as their own. Having lost their own twin children recently, the couple agrees.

Baroness Russoff is informed by an emissary from the High Evolutionary that her husband has died. The emissary presents Gregor’s diary to her, which she carries with her as she finally returns to Russoff Manor in Transylvania. Then, leaving the diary behind, she immediately travels to Castle Russoff, where she learns that her son Gregory is dead, and the rest of the family has left for the United States. To her horror, Maria is accused by the local villagers of consorting with Satan to mother a werewolf. They stone her, and drive her from the village, also preventing her from returning to Russoff Manor. Homeless and starving, Maria wanders the woods for weeks until she stumbles into a Gypsy camp. The Gypsies embrace her as one of their own. She subsequently spends over 15 years with them, and begins to study the black arts of sorcery.

Jennifer Kale is born in Citrusville, Florida.

The third Captain America, Jeffrey Mace, retires from active crime-fighting and returns to reporting. He and Betsy Ross are soon married.

Phillip Masters causes an accident that kills Jacob Reiss. He marries Reiss’s widow, Marcia, and adopts his daughter Alicia, who then becomes Alicia Masters.

Logan is recruited into a black-ops unit and teamed up with Victor Creed, Silver Fox, and a handful of other agents.

One night while hitchhiking home from a concert, Sean Cassidy is rescued from a possible police beating by a university student named Maeve Rourke, They flee on Maeve’s motorcycle, but one of the policemen shoots out her back tire, sending the bike careening over the edge of a cliff. However, Sean uses his mutant powers to save their lives. Maeve is immediately attracted to Sean, but also becomes smitten with Sean’s cousin Tom Cassidy, whom she meets later that night. Both Sean and Tom fall in love with her, but Maeve eventually chooses Sean as her lover.

Nathan Christopher Summers time-jumps from the distant future, but finds he has overshot his destination by 25 years. With no means for further time-travel, he is forced to put his mission on hold and adjust to life in an age that seems very primitive to him. Using his advanced cyborg prosthetics, the young man soon becomes a successful soldier-of-fortune called Cable.

With the outbreak of the Korean War, many of the former Howling Commandos re-enlist. They are reunited under Sergeant Nick Fury for a special mission. After they successfully destroy an enemy MIG base across the 38th parallel, Fury is promoted to Second Lieutenant.

Colonel Thaddeus E. “Thunderbolt” Ross is reassigned from Los Alamos, New Mexico, to Korea. While there, Ross rises to the rank of general.

Harvard history professor Anthony Power is called in to advise President Truman on the war effort. He will go on to advise the next three presidents as well before dropping out of the public eye.

Roger Willis sees combat in Korea. His tour of duty ends when an injury leaves him with a steel plate in his skull.

On Uranus, Robert Grayson is given a pair of energy-manipulating wristbands that are a scaled-down version of Eon’s quantum bands. At the age of seventeen, Grayson travels back to Earth, where he battles crime and tries to spread the Uranian way of peace. Calling himself Marvel Boy, Grayson becomes the preeminent costumed crime-fighter of the time.

1951
As Stephen Strange begins his studies in the Ancient One’s remote retreat, the Chinese government forces Tibet to sign a treaty effectively annexing the country into the People’s Republic of China. Cut off from such affairs, Strange soon gets to know the Ancient One’s devoted manservant, called Hamir the Hermit, who looks after both master and disciples alike. Soon, Strange has his first encounter with the malevolent entity called Nightmare, who inhabits the Dream Dimension. It proves to be only the first of many such battles. Months later, Baron Mordo challenges the novice Strange to a mystic duel, but is defeated. The humiliated Mordo is banished from the Ancient One’s temple, and he returns to his ancestral castle in Transylvania.

At the age of nineteen, Black Bolt, son of the Inhumans’ ruler, is allowed to leave the soundproof chamber in which he has lived since he was an infant. Around this same time, the alien Kree renew their interest in the Inhumans. Black Bolt’s brother Maximus begins secret negotiations with the Kree. A month after he is permitted to re-enter society, Black Bolt discovers his brother’s treachery and uses his powers to stop the Kree before they can escape. However, the Kree spy ship crashes into the laboratory where his parents, Agon and Rynda, are working, killing them. The reverberations from the hypersonic shout also cause Maximus to lose his sanity. Black Bolt is named the new ruler of the Inhumans. Maximus vows to one day destroy his brother and seize the throne.

Charles Xavier enlists in the army to fight in the Korean War. He finds himself serving alongside Cain Marko. On patrol in the jungle, Marko disappears in a mysterious cave-in. Later, Xavier meets William Lonestar, a Cheyenne Indian. They grow close and eventually become blood brothers. Xavier also meets Air Force intelligence operative Michael Rossi.

Nick Fury aids French intelligence as a spy in Vietnam, actions which help him earn the rank of Colonel. His spy work helps him get a position in the Central Intelligence Agency and he quickly rises to be a top operative.

Tony Stark, who has developed a genius-level talent for inventiveness and mechanical ability, enrolls in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology at the age of fifteen.

Sam Wilson witnesses his father, Reverend Paul Wilson, being knifed in the back while trying to stop a fight between two Harlem street gangs. Rev. Wilson bleeds to death in an alley, leaving young Sam traumatized. Sam then becomes very active at his church, trying to fill the void left by his father’s death.

The Crimson Commando, Stonewall, and Super Sabre offer their services to the American government as agents against Communist aggression. However, the government declines their request and persuades them to retire from crime-fighting.

RCMP officer Louis Martin and his wife are killed in an accident. Their adopted son, Jean-Paul, is placed in a foster home.

The High Evolutionary revives Jessica Drew from suspended animation. As before, she has no memory of her previous life. He assigns Bova to be her nanny until she is placed back in stasis following a year of treatments.

Jacqueline Falsworth marries British nobleman Lord Crichton and soon gives birth to their son Kenneth.

Jericho Drumm graduates from college and enrolls in medical school, intent on becoming a psychiatrist.

The American government begins construction of the Alley, a huge network of tunnels underneath the island of Manhattan, for use by the military in case of nuclear war. These tunnels are only kept operational for a few years and will later be abandoned.

Maintaining radio contact with Uranus, Marvel Boy learns that his father has become ill and the Uranians, unfamiliar with the illness that afflicts his body, are unable to treat him. Unable to get a bank loan to purchase medical supplies, Marvel Boy faces a significant delay while he raises the funds he needs. Meanwhile, Deathurge learns of the Uranians’ desire for self-obliteration and contacts them. The Uranians give him permission to end their existence, and so Deathurge destroys the life-dome covering the Uranian colony. Exposure to the planet’s environment kills all the Uranians, as well as Matthew Grayson. When Marvel Boy finally arrives, he discovers the dead bodies of his father and the Uranians. Driven insane with grief, Marvel Boy salvages the quantum bands from the rubble, puts them on his wrists, and sets a course back to Earth to seek vengeance on the bank manager who had refused his loan application. However, on the return journey, Marvel Boy’s spaceship passes through the tail of comet. Exposed to an unknown form of radiation, Marvel Boy is thrown into suspended animation, and the ship slows to the point that it will take 15 years to reach Earth.

Peter Rasputin is born on the Ust-Ordynski Collective in Siberia to Nikolai and Alexandra Rasputin.

Alison Blaire is born on Long Island in Gardendale, New York, to Carter and Katherine Blaire.

1952
Charles Xavier is wounded in combat, but William Lonestar saves his life. Xavier is sent to a military hospital. During this time, Joe MacTaggert sexually abuses his wife Moira, putting her in the hospital. Learning she is pregnant, Moira breaks off her relationship with Charles Xavier. After recovering from his injuries, the heartbroken Xavier goes to live on the Greek Island of Kirinos.

Matt Murdock is blinded in a traffic accident, when he is exposed to radioactive waste.

Natasha Romanova competes in the Summer Olympics in Helsinki, Finland, as a member of the Soviet women’s gymnastics team. After returning from Helsinki, she falls madly in love with a brilliant college student named Andrei Rostov, and it is to him that she loses her virginity. Natasha struggles to make time in her hectic ballet school schedule for their relationship.

Sean Cassidy graduates from Trinity College in Dublin with a Bachelor of Science. Upon finishing his education, Cassidy becomes a detective with the international law-enforcement organization Interpol.

Logan and his black-ops team are sent to Egypt during the Egyptian Revolution, earning them the enmity of both the CIA and the KGB.

Officer Craig “Crash” Simpson gives up his day job as a motorcycle cop to join his old Army buddy Barton Blaze in a traveling stunt cycle show. However, Barton Blaze is killed attempting a spectacular leap, leaving his son Johnny an orphan. The Simpson family takes the traumatized Johnny in and raises him alongside their daughter Roxanne.

While fighting in Korea, Curt Connors loses his right arm to a grenade. After returning home, he decides to pursue a career in herpetology.

The power-hungry Yellow Claw makes an agreement with the Chinese government under which he would be lavishly rewarded for undermining Western democracies on behalf of Communist China.

Richard Rider is born in Queens, New York, to Charles and Gloria Rider.

Xi’an Coy Manh is born alongside her twin brother Tran in Vietnam.

1953
Reed Richards attends Columbia University and stays in a boarding house run by Susan Storm’s aunt. Sue falls in love with the much older Reed, to his great embarrassment.

Bruce Banner graduates from college and starts graduate school at the California Institute of Technology.

During the summer, Tony Stark falls in love for the first time, to Meredith McCall, the daughter of one of his father’s main competitors. The rival fathers forbid the match, and the young lovers are forced apart. Tony is sent on a grand tour of Europe before returning to MIT, and he and Meredith lose all contact with each other.

Donald Blake graduates from medical school with top honors and secures an internship at Bellevue Hospital, where his keen instincts and sincere desire to aid humanity make him popular with patients and staff alike. His level of surgical skill quickly surpasses that of his peers.

Matt Murdock begins working with a crusty old martial arts master known only as Stick, who is also blind. As they train, Stick helps Matt develop a “radar sense” that gives him full awareness of his physical surroundings despite his lack of eyesight. Additionally, Stick teaches Matt how to take his gymnastic abilities to a much higher level, and trains him in a variety of fighting techniques. Matt proves to be as adept at these studies as with his book-learning, but, being naturally introverted, he discusses his new abilities with no one other than Stick.

Natalia Romanova graduates and becomes a professional ballerina in the famous Kirov Ballet company, garnering accolades for her gifted performances. She quickly becomes a source of pride to the Soviet establishment, and a celebrity in the world of ballet.

Ivan Petrovitch Bezukhov is contacted by two men he believes to be American agents, who attempt to bribe him into defecting to the West, arguing that Stalin’s recent death heralds the end of Communism. Ivan throws the money in their faces and says he is loyal to his country, despite its flaws. In retaliation, the agents murder Ivan’s wife and abduct his son, whom Ivan eventually decides must be dead as well. In truth, the “American agents” are Soviet military intelligence, and they take Yuri to an installation in East Berlin, where he is brought up to hate his “American” captors and all they seem to represent.

In the summer, Logan’s black-ops team is sent on a mission to Cuba, where they discover information about the CIA’s relationship with Fidel Castro that could prove embarrassing to the United States government.

When unscrupulous Dutch scientist Ulysses Klaw invades Wakanda to steal vibranium, he is confronted by the tribal chieftain T’Chaka. Klaw’s heavily-armed mercenaries gun down T’Chaka and his men, but the villains are driven off in defeat when the teen-aged prince, T’Challa, attacks them with their own sonic disruptor weapon. In the aftermath of this tragedy, T’Challa is sent abroad to complete his education at the finest universities of Europe and America, accompanied by his best friend B’Tumba. In the meantime, B’Tumba’s father, N’Baza, rules Wakanda as regent.

Carol Danvers enlists in the United States Air Force. After basic training, she is assigned to the intelligence division, where Colonel Michael Rossi takes her under his wing. Their first mission together is to Berlin.

A test of an atomic bomb in the Nevada desert bathes the Human Torch with radiation and frees him from the paralysis which has afflicted him for four years. After unearthing himself, the Torch tracks down Toro, finding him being used by the communists to blow up American ammo dumps in Korea. His powers augmented by the nuclear blast, the Torch easily overcomes Toro and returns him to America, where his mental conditioning is broken. Overjoyed to be reunited, the Human Torch and Toro resume their crime-fighting crusade.

During the Korean War, an American history instructor, obsessed with hero worship for the original Captain America (whom he correctly believes to have disappeared before the end of World War II) discovers the formula to the Super-Soldier serum in a Nazi spy’s notebook. Going to the American government, he offers to become the next Captain America in exchange for the serum. The government agrees, hoping to have a patriotic symbol to fight in the Korean War. This man then learns the original Captain America’s true identity, and, wanting to convince people that he is the original, he undergoes plastic surgery to look as much like Steve Rogers as possible. Shortly after, however, the project is cancelled when the Korean War comes to an end. This new “Steve Rogers,” as the history teacher is now legally known, starts teaching at the Lee School. There he meets Jack Monroe, a teenager who shares his obsession with Captain America and Bucky. The two become friends and Monroe acquires Captain America and Bucky costumes for them. However, Rogers at first refuses to don the costume.

Brian Falsworth, the second Union Jack, dies in a car crash.

Despite his reputation as the best surgeon in Canada, Michael Twoyoungmen is unable to save his wife from a terminal illness. Upon her death, their daughter Elizabeth vents her grief upon her father, seeing his failure as a betrayal. Going into a profound depression, Twoyoungmen leaves his daughter in the care of his neighbors Ramsey and Claire McNeil and retreats to a remote cabin in the wilderness.

Upon graduation from college, Walter Langkowski is drafted to play professional football for the Green Bay Packers.

A Plodex egg, which has drifted across the Atlantic Ocean for millennia, is discovered underwater by Newfoundland fisherman Thomas Smallwood. His wife Gladys forces the egg open, and upon contact with human DNA the Plodex within assumes a humanoid shape. Thomas and Gladys adopt the half-alien infant and name it Marrina. Because of the damage done to the egg when the Plodex ship crashed on Earth, Marrina grows up with none of her race’s aggressiveness and is treated as a normal human girl. Despite her physical differences, the residents of the small fishing community come to accept her.

Richard Easton, an archaeologist’s assistant working in Resolute Bay, Northwest Territories, discovers a long-buried metal headband. Later that night, Easton feels a compulsion to put on the headband, and when he does so, a vision of Nelvanna, Hodiak, and Turoq—three of the Inuit gods—appears before him. Nelvanna informs Easton that she plans to mate with him. She tells Easton that she needs to give birth to a child that is half human, and thus not affected by the barrier which prevents the Inuit gods from physically appearing on Earth. Overpowered by Nelvanna’s beauty, Easton is mystically transported to the gods’ realm.

The Inhumans begin to fear discovery of their island of Attilan by the human race. Black Bolt’s aquatic cousin Triton is assigned to monitor oceangoing traffic. However, when Triton is briefly captured by human sailors, Black Bolt decides to relocate the entire city and searches the world for a suitable site. Black Bolt encounters Ikaris the Eternal and accompanies him to Olympia to meet Zuras. Learning of the Inhumans’ plight, Zuras decides to aid Black Bolt in finding a new location for Attilan. In the Himalayas, the Eternals use their powers to excavate an enormous pit, and then use anti-gravity generators to float the Inhumans’ city to its new home.

Shortly after Attilan is moved from the Atlantic to the Himalayas, the exiled Inhuman Phaedar and his son Maelstrom discover traces of Terrigen Mist on the abandoned island. They set up a base and begin conducting their own experiments on Terrigen, genetic engineering, and cloning.

The Enclave makes a number of scientific breakthroughs. However, their major goal is to discover a process by which to create artificial life so that a slave race could be engineered to fight their wars of conquest. The Enclave labors on this problem for the next ten years.

Tyrone Johnson is born in South Boston, Massachusetts.

John Walker is born in Custer’s Grove, Georgia, to Caleb and Emily Walker.

Lemar Hoskins is born in Chicago, Illinois.

Kevin MacTaggert is born to Moira MacTaggert in Scotland.

1954
Tony Stark graduates from MIT and goes to work for his father at Stark Industries.

Donald Blake enters a six-year residency program in neurosurgery, where he soon proves his aptitude, developing an excellent reputation that would be the envy of more experienced surgeons.

Clint Barton and his brother Barney run away from the state orphanage and join a traveling carnival. There, Clint apprentices himself to the carnival’s star attraction, the Swordsman, who is secretly the international criminal Jacques Duquesne. For eight hours every day for four years, the Swordsman trains Clint in the use of bladed weapons while another of the carnival’s performers, Buck Chisholm, a.k.a. Trick Shot, trains him in archery.

Natasha Romanova’s relationship with Andrei Rostov becomes strained as he has difficulty dealing with her newfound fame. Although they had talked of marriage, Rostov insists Natasha give up the ballet to be his wife, which she is unwilling to do. Rostov becomes jealous after Natasha develops a friendship with the handsome Soviet flying ace Alexi Shostakov, who is already considered a hero to the Russian people and understands the pressures of being famous. Ultimately, Natasha breaks up with Rostov and takes Shostakov as her lover.

Christopher and Katherine Anne Summers are kidnapped by the Shi’ar, an alien race from a distant galaxy. Their sons, Scott and Alex, are sent to an orphanage in Omaha, Nebraska. Alex is soon placed in a foster home, but Scott, due to injuries sustained during the kidnapping, remains at the orphanage.

Ororo Munro is also orphaned in Cairo, Egypt, when an airplane crashes into her house.

Sam Wilson and his sister Sarah witness their mother being gunned down in an alley by a mugger. Sam is further traumatized and begins creating an alternate personality as a tough, street-wise delinquent called “Snap.”

Johnny Blaze finally overcomes his fear of motorcycles and begins learning stunt-riding techniques alongside Roxanne. He dreams of one day taking over the show after “Crash” Simpson retires.

With the death of his wife, General Thaddeus E. “Thunderbolt” Ross sends his daughter Betty off to boarding school, believing a military base is not a proper environment for a teenage girl.

John Jameson graduates from high school and joins the Air Force.

Dr. Myron MacLain finally perfects the formula for his enhanced steel, creating the nearly indestructible alloy he calls adamantium.

Lord Dark Wind arranges for the theft of the adamantium formula from the American government, and then begins experimenting on a process to bond adamantium to bone in order to create his own race of super-warriors.

Norman Osborn comes to prominence after stealing the research of Professor Mendel Stromm. When Stromm tries to stop him, Osborn arranges for Stromm to be sent to prison for ten years.

Rogue is born in Mississippi.

Sam Guthrie is born in Cumberland, Kentucky, to Thomas and Lucinda Guthrie.

Danielle Moonstar is born in Boulder, Colorado, to William and Peg Lonestar. Charles Xavier is present for her christening, and meets William’s father, the shaman Black Eagle.

Tandy Bowen is born in Shaker Heights, Ohio, to Nathan Tyler and Melissa Bowen.

Vance Astrovik is born in Saugerties, New York, to Arnold and Norma Astrovik.

James Proudstar is born in Camp Verde, Arizona, to Neal and Maria Proudstar.

1955
Reed Richards graduates from Columbia and returns to his father’s research complex in Central City, California. Unknown to Reed, his father is engaged in a secret project to build a time machine, and is working in collaboration with Victor von Doom.

Mary Storm dies in a car accident.

Charles Xavier travels to Cairo and has a run-in with Ororo, now a pickpocket. He battles Amahl Farouk, known as the Shadow King, on the astral plane.

Natasha Romanova marries Alexi Shostakov and they become something of a celebrity couple. As Natalia Shostakova, she continues to delight audiences with the Kirov Ballet, though she remains haunted by her wartime experiences.

The communist Red Skull holds hostage a number of foreign delegates at the United Nations building in New York. When a news report announces the return of the Red Skull, “Steve Rogers” and Jack Monroe decide to take the Super-Soldier serum. However, because they do not undergo the same “vita-ray” treatment that the original Steve Rogers had undergone, the serum has a detrimental effect upon their sanity. Donning the costumes, the pair goes after the new Red Skull and defeats him. The two then become active crime-fighters, mainly concentrating on communist spies.

Matt Murdock enrolls in Columbia University and meets his roommate Franklin “Foggy” Nelson. Matt soon meets fellow student Elektra Natchios, daughter of a Greek ambassador, and they become lovers.

The radiation which had freed the Human Torch from his paralysis is causing him to lose control over his powers. Realizing that he is probably dying, the Human Torch says good-bye to Toro and returns to the desert in the American southwest. There, the Torch attempts suicide by overloading his solar cells in a single powerful burst. However, he is not destroyed but merely rendered inert. His body falls to the desert floor and is soon covered by the drifting sands. A disheartened Toro retires from crime-fighting and forswears ever using his powers again. He will eventually marry a woman named Anne and lead a relatively normal life for several years.

Still ostracized from the scientific community, Phineas T. Horton is forced to become a repairman to make ends meet. Horton starts living under the alias “Thomas Raye” when he becomes Frankie Raye’s stepfather.

Civil war comes to Attilan after Maximus turns three Alpha Primitives into super-intelligent energy beings known collectively as the Trikon. Together they wrest the throne from Black Bolt and drive him into exile, along with Gorgon, Karnak, Triton, and Crystal. During the battle, Medusa becomes separated from the others and, suffering from total amnesia, is lost in the Himalayas. The rest of the Inhumans are forced to serve the usurper Maximus.

The High Evolutionary brings Jessica Drew out of suspended animation. Bova again cares for the amnesiac girl during her year-long regimen of treatments in the genetic accelerator. Jessica then returns to her cryogenic chamber.

Topaz, now orphaned, is found in a prison camp by the sorcerer Taboo. Impressed by her superhuman psychic abilities, Taboo directs her to turn her powers on the guards, enabling them to walk out of the camp unscathed. Recognizing her vast potential, he takes Topaz under his wing and trains her to serve as his familiar.

Daniel Drumm becomes the Houngan Supreme of the island of Haiti.

The CIA sets up a clandestine operation to recreate the Super-Soldier program of World War II, using as a cover the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Pest Control Section. The operation is code-named Weapon X. Using a front organization, the project secures the cooperation of the Canadian government. They target Logan’s black-ops team as potential test-subjects.

Kitty Pryde is born in Deerfield, Illinois, to Carmen and Theresa Pryde.

Doug Ramsey is born to Phillip and Sheila Ramsey.

Meggan is born near Fenborough in the north of England to Gypsy parents. Her mutant shapeshifting powers cause her to grow fur to protect herself from the cold. Her frightened parents try to keep their strange baby hidden.

1956
Susan Storm graduates from Glenville High School and works various modeling jobs in and around New York City. She keeps in touch with Reed Richards, although he is working obsessively on his research projects.

Suffering from schizophrenic paranoia and on the verge of mental breakdown, the latest Captain America and Bucky start attacking not only suspected communist sympathizers but also African Americans and anyone else they consider not to be “pure-blooded” Americans. The FBI learns of their attacks on innocent people and arrests the pair, exposing them as impostors to the public. Rogers and Monroe both refuse to undergo psychiatric treatment and are sentenced to prison, but due to their super-strength, they end up being placed in cryogenic storage.

Matt Murdock attempts to rescue Elektra’s father from a group of terrorists, but fails. Ambassador Natchios is killed, prompting Elektra to drop out of Columbia and leave the United States.

Magnus is volunteering at a psychiatric hospital for Holocaust survivors in Haifa, Israel when he meets Charles Xavier. As they get to know each other, Magnus begins to suspect that Xavier is a mutant like himself, and his suspicions are confirmed when the hospital is attacked by the terrorist group HYDRA. The HYDRA agents, led by Baron Wolfgang von Strucker, are seeking a fortune in Nazi gold, and Magnus and Xavier follow them to Kenya to rescue their friend Gabrielle Haller, who knows the secret of the gold’s whereabouts. Using their mutant powers, Magnus and Xavier defeat Strucker and his men, and Magnus takes all the gold for himself. Seeing that the spirit of the Nazis lives on, Magnus begins to plot the overthrow of Homo sapiens in favor of mutants like himself.

Moira MacTaggert receives her doctorate in genetics and establishes her Mutant Research Centre on Muir Isle, off the coast of Scotland.

Sean Cassidy rises to the rank of inspector at Interpol. Shortly afterwards, he is assigned to a mission that will keep him from communicating with his wife Maeve for a year. Unbeknownst to both of them, Maeve is pregnant at the time of Sean’s departure. In due course, Maeve gives birth to a daughter, whom she names Theresa. Deep undercover, Sean remains unaware of these events.

Having earned a fortune, Walter Langkowski retires from sports to pursue a Ph.D. in nuclear physics.

After rescuing Crystal from a superstitious mob in Central Europe, Gorgon decides to return to Attilan to negotiate terms to end the royal family’s exile. There, he learns that his father was killed while leading a revolt. He swears vengeance on the killer, known as the Seeker. Maximus then sends Gorgon back to Black Bolt and the others with orders to find Medusa and bring her home. The Seeker follows, keeping a surreptitious eye on the royal family during their quest.

Still suffering from amnesia, Medusa eventually makes her way to Paris, France, where she falls in with a jewel thief named Paul Dumas. They become partners-in-crime, and are wildly successful thanks to Medusa’s prehensile hair.

Harris Moore encounters a mysterious gaseous entity that endows him with superhuman powers. He adopts the costumed identity of the Comet and finds fame as New York’s only active superhero.

FBI agent Jimmy Woo is assigned the task of bringing the Yellow Claw to justice. Despite foiling a number of nefarious schemes, Woo is unable to apprehend the villain.

Godzilla is awakened from suspended animation by a nuclear weapons test. The sole survivor of the creature’s initial attack is Dr. Yuriko Takiguchi, who dedicates his life to studying and understanding the monster he believes himself responsible for creating. In the midst of Godzilla’s first rampage through Tokyo, the scientist’s grandson Rob Takiguchi is born. Godzilla wanders Japan for several years, causing widespread destruction, until mysteriously disappearing.

J. Jonah Jameson hires Ian Fate, a journalism student fresh out of college, to work at the Daily Bugle.

CIA agents S.J. North and George C. Cooper inadvertently cause the sinking of the ocean liner Andrea Doria.

Marvel Comics begins publishing Sgt. Fury and his Howling Commandos, based on the real-life exploits of Nick Fury’s famous WWII squad.

Danny Ketch is born in New York City.

Amara Aquilla is born in Nova Roma within the Amazon jungle to Senator Lucius Antonius Aquilla and his wife.

Eugene Patilio is born in New York City to Vincent and Rosie Patilio.

Rusty Collins is born in Tulsa, Oklahoma.

Gabrielle Haller gives birth to Charles Xavier’s child, whom she names David Haller.

1957
Nathaniel Richards succeeds in building his time machine and mysteriously disappears, leaving his son Reed some two billion dollars, with which he initiates his long-anticipated starship project, setting it up at the family labs in Central City, California. Reed secures federal funding as well.

Victor von Doom has built a copy of the time machine for himself, and uses it to study the great conquerors of history, including a stop in 1942 to observe Adolf Hitler in person.

Franklin Storm is convicted of manslaughter and imprisoned.

Charles Xavier travels to Tibet and encounters an extraterrestrial being calling himself Lucifer. During their confrontation, Lucifer cripples Xavier and escapes. Utterly defeated, Xavier finally returns home to Salem Center, NY to become a recluse and study genetics, beginning to publish his research again.

Jean Grey’s telepathic powers manifest themselves when her friend Annie Richardson is hit by a car and dies in Jean’s arms. As a result, Jean shuns all human contact.

In response to the growing threat posed by HYDRA, the government’s clandestine 12-member council is charged with planning a new international security organization, which will eventually be christened S.H.I.E.L.D. (Supreme Headquarters International Espionage Law-enforcement Division).

At the age of 21, Tony Stark inherits Stark Industries when his parents are killed in a car crash. His first major contract is to design and build a flying fortress that will be known as the Helicarrier, a project that will take several years. In the meantime, Stark will develop his company into a multimillion-dollar business with contracts to supply weapons and munitions to various agencies of the American government.

KGB director Ivan Serov decides that the Shostakovs would make excellent operatives. Natasha is told that her husband has been killed in an explosion caused by American sabotage. She vows to do whatever she can to honor her husband’s heroic memory. The KGB recruits her to be a spy. She retires from the ballet, bids farewell to Ivan Petrovich, and leaves Leningrad. At the KGB’s infamous Red Room training facility, Natasha meets another agent-in-training, Melina Vostokova. Although they first develop a friendly rivalry, it soon becomes clear that Melina can’t match Natasha’s natural talent. Recognizing that talent, master spy Alexi Bruskin takes Natasha under his wing and supervises her training personally. In time, Natasha receives advanced training from top agent Irma Klausvichnova. Meanwhile, Alexei Shostakov is told that his wife has died and begins a rigorous training program to turn him into the costumed hero known as the Red Guardian.

Bobbi Morse enrolls in a Ph.D. program in biology at the Georgia Institute of Technology, where she meets Dr. Wilma Calvin.

Maeve Cassidy is killed by a terrorist bomb while visiting relatives in Northern Ireland. Baby Theresa is taken in by her father’s cousin Tom, a mercenary. When Sean Cassidy finally returns from his undercover assignment, he is informed of his wife’s death, but, to spare him further pain, his family decides not to tell him of Theresa’s existence, since she is presumed to have died as well. When Sean nearly cripples Tom during a fight at Maeve’s grave, Tom vows to never reveal that Sean has a living daughter. Tom rechristens the girl Theresa Rourke, after her mother’s maiden name, and claims she is a foundling.

Disgusted by the impostor Captain America and Bucky, Fred Davis publishes a book that reveals the true story of the life and death of Bucky Barnes, as well as explaining about the second and third Captain America, and the disappearance of the original.

Carl Lucas and his friend Willis Stryker, both small-time crooks in Harlem, fall for the same girl, Reva Connors. However, as Stryker has made money as a racketeer, he proves a more successful suitor, until he receives a savage beating from enforcers for the Maggia. Terrified, Connors breaks off her relationship with Stryker and starts seeing Lucas, who is trying to go straight. Stryker vows to get revenge on Lucas for stealing his girl.

Wendell Rand takes his family to the Himalayas in search of K’un-Lun, which he has described only as a mystical land. They are accompanied by his business partner, Harold Meachum. However, while traveling through the mountains, Rand’s son Danny falls from a treacherous mountain passage, dragging his mother and father with him. Although Danny and Heather land safely on a ledge below, Wendell hangs precariously from the edge of the mountain. Meachum, wishing to obtain complete control over their business, ignores Rand’s pleas for help and instead causes him to fall to his death. Seeing what Meachum has done, Heather and Danny spurn his offer of aid and instead attempt to make their way back to their camp on their own. Later, while fleeing from a pack of wolves, Heather and Danny stumble upon the portal to K’un-Lun. As Danny races across the bridge to the city, Heather sacrifices herself to the wolves to give her son a chance to make it to safety. Danny is then brought before Yü-Ti, who chooses not to reveal that he is the boy’s uncle. As the son of Wendell Rand, Danny is the rightful ruler of K’un-Lun, but Yü-Ti is unwilling to relinquish his reign. Thus, he has Danny apprenticed to Lei Kung the Thunderer to learn the martial arts, hoping that Danny’s desire for revenge on Harold Meachum will eventually lead him to return to Earth. Danny’s arrival in K’un-Lun is witnessed by a Tibetan monk, Da Tempa, who is visiting the extradimensional realm on the day the portal is open. He then returns home full of hope that Danny Rand may one day claim the mantle of the Iron Fist.

Harold Meachum gets lost while hiking out of the mountains and collapses into the snow. He is rescued by some local Sherpas and taken to a house in the Katmandu Valley. Due to severe frostbite, both of Meachum’s legs must be amputated above the knee. While he is recovering, the Tibetan monk Da Tempa visits the house, bringing tales of his visit to K’un-Lun. Meachum is shocked to hear that the warrior monks there have taken in a young American boy whose parents were lost in the mountains and have begun training him in the martial arts. Meachum becomes convinced that Danny Rand will return to seek vengeance when K’un-Lun reappears in ten years’ time.

When the Comet’s secret identity is discovered by New York’s criminal underworld, an assassin blows up the Moore family’s house, killing the hero’s wife and daughter. Harris Moore is severely injured, and while recovering in the hospital, he decides to abandon his superhero career. Unaware that his son, Frank, has survived, Moore becomes a drunken bum living on the streets of Manhattan. Frank is placed in foster care, and eventually swears to take vengeance on the underworld.

Chemist Ted Sallis initiates a research project at Empire State University to develop a serum that would alter human biochemistry to survive even the most toxic industrial pollution. The project soon receives the full backing of the United States military and is classified top-secret and codenamed Operation: Sulfur.

The Yellow Claw returns to China and goes into hiding. Frustrated by the repeated betrayals of his grand-niece Suwan, but unwilling to kill his only living relative, the Yellow Claw places Suwan in suspended animation so she cannot interfere in any more of his schemes.

Facing extinction, living robots on the planet Protaris create a series of artificial humanoids in an attempt to preserve their cultural heritage. The most fully biological unit is sent to live on Earth under the name James-Michael Starling. The boy is raised by android parents at a secluded house in the Appalachian Mountains of Pennsylvania.

Roberto da Costa is born in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, to Emmanuel and Nina da Costa.

Rahne Sinclair is born in Scotland and soon orphaned.

1958
While test-flying a prototype F-4 Phantom, a mechanical failure causes Ben Grimm to crash. He is trapped in the burning wreckage until being rescued by his best friend, fellow test pilot Desmond Pitt. Later in the year, Pitt takes a position at NASA and he and Ben start to lose touch.

Bruce Banner accepts a job with the United States Defense Department, working at the research station at Desert Base, New Mexico. There he begins work on the top-secret development of an experimental nuclear weapon called the gamma bomb. His project is supervised by General Thaddeus E. “Thunderbolt” Ross, and Banner soon meets the general’s introverted daughter Betty.

Logan encounters Eugene Judd during a mission to Venezuela. Though they are working for opposing sides, they maintain their mutual respect.

A child psychiatrist refers Jean Grey to Charles Xavier, based on his past success with patients like Gabrielle Haller. He helps Jean suppress her telepathic abilities and begins training her in the use of her telekinetic powers. He encourages her to keep her abilities a secret.

Stephen Strange, now a master of the mystic arts, finally returns to New York and establishes his Sanctum Sanctorum in Greenwich Village. Near the end of the year, Wong shows up at his door, saying he has been sent to be Strange’s manservant, just as his father, Hamir, served the Ancient One.

Natasha Shostakova is sent on her first espionage mission outside the U.S.S.R. She meets an operative named Danny French at Los Angeles International Airport. They break into a secret installation in Nevada called Project Four. Their mission is a success, and they steal a mysterious sphere which the scientists had been working on. Natasha is then sent to upstate New York where she lives under the alias “Nancy Rushman,” a third-grade teacher. She succeeds with every mission the KGB gives her during the three years of this assignment.

The hard-drinking Logan is slipped a powerful drug by the CIA that causes him to accidentally shoot a firing range worker in the head. The subsequent investigation reveals “self-destructive tendencies” and a “morbid obsession with mutants,” and he is cashiered from the intelligence service. Depressed, Logan visits his friend Bando in Japan, and they participate in an elaborate tea ceremony.

Wishing to distance himself from painful associations, Sean Cassidy resigns from Interpol and leaves the UK to become a freelance operative. He eventually settles in the United States and begins working for the New York City police department.

Carl Lucas is arrested when police find two kilos of uncut heroin in his apartment, though the drugs were planted there by Willis Stryker. Lucas is unable to convince anyone of his innocence and is sentenced to twenty years in prison. Shortly afterward, Reva Connors is killed in a drive-by shooting as a drug-smuggling ring tries to eliminate Stryker. Lucas vows to avenge Connors’s death.

While on a research expedition in northern India, Professor Lee Wing unearths the mystic tome known as the Sacred Volume of Kali. That very night, an assassin from the Cult of Kara-Kai tries to kill Wing and retrieve the book, but Wing shoots him dead with his revolver. Learning that the book is believed to contain the means of destroying the fabled city of K’un-Lun, Wing decides he must keep the book safe until he can translate its ancient script. Thus, he hikes out of India through a lonely mountain pass in the Himalayas, where he comes upon the Tibetan monk Da Tempa, who has been mortally wounded in a rockslide. Before dying, Da Tempa tells Wing of his recent visit to K’un-Lun and of Danny Rand and his quest for vengeance against Harold Meachum. Intrigued, Wing decides to try to track Danny down when he reappears in nine years.

Kyle Richmond enrolls in Grayburn University, despite his poor academic record, thanks to his father's wealth and influence.

Tandy Bowen’s father leaves his wife and child and travels to India to seek spiritual enlightenment.

Despite having become fabulously wealthy, Medusa is troubled by her lost past, which leads her to reject Paul Dumas’s sexual advances and dissolve their partnership. As a result, Dumas betrays her to the French police. Medusa escapes, only to run into Gorgon, though she doesn’t recognize him. Medusa flees from her cousin, eventually finding refuge on a small island in the Mediterranean Sea.

Heather McNeil, wishing to support her large family, gets a job at the Am-Can Petro-Chemical Company in Edmonton, Alberta. McNeil becomes attracted to James MacDonald Hudson, an employee of Am-Can, though he is much older than her. Eventually, Hudson resigns from Am-Can when he learns that a high-tech geological exploration suit of his design is to be sold to the United States military. Hudson steals the exploration suit and abandons it, taking the psycho-cybernetic helmet that controls the suit, thus rendering the suit useless. McNeil, who had also resigned from Am-Can, checks up on Hudson and discovers that he was the one who stole the helmet. Fearing criminal proceedings against him, Hudson goes to the Canadian government for help. The Canadian government declares that Hudson has been a “retroactive” employee of theirs for years, and gives Hudson immunity from prosecution. Hudson is then invited by the Canadian Prime Minister to help create Department H, a top-secret research and development agency within the Canadian Ministry of Defense. Hudson and McNeil become engaged, and she joins Department H as Hudson’s secretary. Later, she glimpses reports on Hudson’s desk on a process to bond adamantium to bone, translated from the Japanese. She dismisses the reports from her mind, and does not recall them again for many years.

Logan returns to Canada and makes plans to finally go home to the Yukon. On the way, he is kidnapped from outside a bar and taken to a secret facility in Windsor, Ontario. The other members of his black-ops team are kidnapped as well and they are all subjected to a reprogramming process to erase their memories and replace them with implanted scenarios. However, Silver Fox manages to escape and goes into hiding. She eventually joins the subversive organization HYDRA.

Logan is transported to a secret research installation in Canada’s north woods, where he becomes a test subject for the Weapon X program. The scientists adapt Lord Dark Wind’s process to fuse adamantium to Logan’s entire skeleton, making it unbreakable. They also implant three bionic adamantium “claws” into each forearm, which he can extend through the backs of his hands. However, their attempts at mental conditioning fail and Logan escapes from the complex. Though free, Logan’s memory has been destroyed and his mind is shattered. Little more than a savage animal, he stalks off into the wilderness.

Logan encounters a fearsome creature known as the Hunter in Darkness and frees it from a bear trap. He draws off the men hunting the creature, but one of them shoots Logan in the chest. The wound quickly heals and Logan disappears into the night.

Angelica Jones is born to Bartholomew Jones and wife.

1959
Doctor Strange begins his new career as a Master of the Mystic Arts. He begins to build a reputation as an expert in the occult, occasionally helping the police with particularly mysterious cases, but more often aiding individuals who seek him out. For the next three-and-a-half years, Doctor Strange develops his skills as a sorcerer and has adventures that remain shrouded in mystery. It is during this period that he first befriends the mystics Omar Karindu and Aleister Kane and makes an enemy of the minor sorcerer Cyrus Black.

Newlyweds James and Heather Hudson discover Logan, reduced to a feral state, while on their honeymoon in Wood Buffalo National Park. Heather helps Logan begin to regain a more stable mental state while her husband goes for medical help. After returning to civilization, the Hudsons continue to nurse Logan back to health, learning more about his mutant powers and adamantium claws. They work with Logan at Department H, where he receives psychiatric treatment.

Clint Barton begins to perform professionally as a trick marksman in a traveling carnival under the name Hawkeye the Marksman. He discovers his mentor the Swordsman is stealing from the carnival’s management to repay a large gambling debt. Barton flees in panic from his mentor. Chasing Barton onto the high-wire, the Swordsman cuts the rope out from under him, and Barton falls to the ground. The Swordsman is about to kill the severely-injured Barton when Trick Shot intervenes. Discovered by his brother Barney, Clint is rushed to the hospital. The Swordsman flees the country, returning to Europe. After several weeks, Barton is released from the hospital and resumes performing with the traveling carnival.

Kyle Richmond believes he has killed his girlfriend Mindy in a drunk-driving accident and allows himself to be expelled from Grayburn University. In truth, Mindy is only crippled, but Richmond’s father pays her a fortune to disappear. Rejected from military service due to a heart murmur, Richmond reluctantly takes over the family business after his father dies in a plane crash. He begins searching for a means to correct his heart murmur.

Jeanne-Marie Beaubier, extremely depressed over the harsh conditions she endures at DuPont’s School for Girls, attempts suicide by jumping off the school’s roof. Instead of plunging to her death, Beaubier’s mutant abilities emerge and she discovers that she can fly. Believing this to be a sign of divine intervention, she tells what has happened to the school’s headmistress, Souer Anne. Believing Jeanne-Marie to be speaking blasphemy, Souer Anne has Beaubier strictly punished. The anguish Beaubier experiences causes her to have a mental breakdown, triggering her multiple-personality disorder. Under the influence of a new persona, Beaubier leaves the school for three days, and when she returns, she has no memory of what happened. The further punishment she receives for leaving the school causes Beaubier to repress the new personality, and it will not re-emerge for some years.

Jean-Paul Martin’s mutant abilities also begin to develop. He discovers that with his enhanced speed, he has turned from a mediocre skier into a highly-successful one. Concentrating upon his skiing, Martin sets his sights on becoming a world champion.

Matt Murdock and Foggy Nelson graduate from college and enroll in Columbia Law School to pursue their Juris Doctor degrees.

After repeated escape attempts and incessant brawling and insubordination, Carl Lucas is transferred to Seagate Prison, a maximum-security facility on an island off the coast of Georgia. Once there, he is subjected to brutal beatings by the racist guard Albert “Billy Bob” Rackham.

Jessica Drew is released from cryogenic stasis, finally cured of radiation poisoning. She has no memory of her past existence. The High Evolutionary pledges to raise her as his own daughter, but, absorbed in his research, he leaves Jessica’s care and education primarily to Bova. Among the New Men of Wundagore, Jessica feels isolated and lonely.

Marc Spector is in Italy, running guns for the CIA, when his younger brother Randall sells him out to the Communists. Randall murders Marc’s lover, Lisa, and flees into the countryside. Marc soon hunts Randall down and almost kills him with a hand grenade. Randall goes mad while in the hospital and, three months later, kills a nurse and escapes. The brothers will not see each other again for ten years.

While practicing a pyrotechnic stunt, Johnny Blaze’s motorcycle catches fire, and he bravely rides it out of the canvas-enclosed arena before it can explode. However, blinded by the smoke, Blaze rides into a tree and crashes. His foster mother, Mona Simpson, rushes to his aid, only to be fatally wounded when the fire ignites the gas tank. At the hospital, the dying Mona extracts a promise from Blaze never to ride in the stunt show. After her funeral, Blaze refuses to get back on a motorcycle, leading Roxanne and her father to suspect that he is a coward.

Charles Xavier begins teaching genetics classes at Columbia University in New York. Then, Xavier attends a genetics conference in Chicago where he meets veterinary student Shanna O’Hara. Xavier also begins collaborating with a physician, Karl Lykos, whom he initially believes to be a mutant. Xavier even discusses some of his ideas about a mutant taskforce with Lykos, but when he determines that Lykos is actually something he classifies as a “non-mutant variant,” Xavier gradually ends their association.

While visiting her Aunt Anna, Mary Jane Watson sees Peter Parker for the first time.

David Cannon, a mutant who can spin at incredible speed, begins his career as the superhuman criminal known as the Human Top.

Zebediah Killgrave, a Yugoslav spy, is caught infiltrating an American military base. In the ensuing exchange of gunfire, he is exposed to a mutagenic nerve gas that dyes his skin purple. He quickly discovers that he has also gained the ability to control others’ behavior simply by giving verbal commands. He immediately quits working as a spy and adopts a lifestyle of indolent luxury, becoming known as the Purple Man.

Now calling himself Doctor Doom, Victor Von Doom returns to Latveria and seizes the throne. His coup is not known to the international community, which still considers the small nation to be a constitutional monarchy governed by a prime minister. However, Latveria immediately begins to isolate itself from the world outside its borders.

Tabitha Smith is born in Roanoke, Virginia.

Ginny Snow is born.

1960
Research scientist Henry Pym meets Maria Trovaya, the daughter of a brilliant geneticist who escaped the recent revolution in Hungary. Within months, they are married, and Maria convinces her husband to take her back to Hungary for their honeymoon, believing the KGB will not know that “Mrs. Henry Pym” is the political dissident Maria Trovaya. Unfortunately, she is kidnapped and murdered by the secret police soon after their arrival in Budapest. Pym goes berserk and is jailed, but the U.S. State Department negotiates for his release. Returning to America, Pym goes into a profound depression.

Logan is recruited into the Intelligence Branch of the Canadian Armed Forces and retrained as a secret agent. He soon meets Asano Kimura of Japanese Intelligence, as well as Nick Fury and other agents of the Central Intelligence Agency.

Carol Danvers and Michael Rossi first meet Logan and Nick Fury. They work together on a number of occasions. While in Tokyo, Danvers teaches Logan to play poker.

Magnus decides to use his powers to track down escaped Nazi war criminals and bring them to justice. His early successes bring him to the attention of the CIA. He is assigned a CIA handler and adopts the codename Magneto.

His residency completed, Donald Blake signs up for a one-year fellowship to put the finishing touches on his medical education.

Kevin Plunder emerges from his mist-shrouded lair to exact revenge upon the Man-Apes. Aided by his loyal sabertooth, Zabu, he hunts down and kills the Man-Apes until Maa-Gor is the only one left. Only vaguely remembering his childhood in England, Kevin adopts the name given to him by the Man-Apes, “Ka-Zar,” which means “Son of the Tiger.”

Shanna O’Hara, now a doctor of veterinary medicine, takes a job at the Central Park Zoo in New York, where she demonstrates a special affinity with big cats.

When his experiments show the formula created for Operation: Sulfur would mutate people into horribly-disfigured pollution-breathing monsters, Ted Sallis begins to question the morality of his research project. Then, after falling for a bohemian girl called Sainte-Cloud, whom he met in Greenwich Village, Sallis is inspired to condemn his own project. He convinces a panel of his colleagues to refuse to endorse the project and the government orders it shut down. However, he is dejected afterwards when Sainte-Cloud refuses his marriage proposal.

While in Buffalo, New York, Zebediah Killgrave commands a woman named Melanie to marry him. Within a few months, though, he develops real feelings for Melanie and releases her from his influence. Horrified by what she was made to do, Melanie flees to Toronto, Canada. Several months later, she gives birth to their daughter, Kara Killgrave.

Alex Power is born in Richmond, Virginia, to James and Margaret Power.

Jubilation Lee is born in Beverly Hills, California.

Cassie Lang is born to Scott and Peggy Lang.

An extraterrestrial called Xemnu crash-lands on Earth after escaping from a prison planet. Badly injured in the crash, Xemnu is revived by a hapless electrician named Joe Harper. The alien then uses his psychic powers to hypnotize a number of people and uses them to build a new, more powerful spacecraft for him. However, Xemnu releases Harper from mental domination as a reward for saving his life. Bravely, Harper rewires the ship’s control panel, causing it to short out once it has left Earth’s atmosphere. Nearly electrocuted, Xemnu goes into shock and his ship spins out of control, tumbling into a collision course with the sun. On Earth, Xemnu’s other thralls emerge from their trance with no memory of what has happened. Only Joe Harper realizes the dire threat posed by aliens from outer space.


This brings us up to more or less where many of the individual OMU chronologies begin. See the handy links section in this blog’s left-hand column for the continuation of the story of the Original Marvel Universe.




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