OMU: Ancient History 3

Each section I edit of Robert Wicks’s “Unofficial Chronology to the Marvel Universe” seems more heavily-revised than the last. This is due, in part, to my elimination of the infamous “sliding time-scale” in establishing the history of the Original Marvel Universe. However, it is also due to my having added a great deal of additional content after consulting the excellent online Appendix to the Handbook of the Marvel Universe. As before, I have re-written some of Mr. Wicks’s language for brevity, clarity, and style.

Note: The following timeline depicts the Original Marvel Universe (anchored to November 1961 as the first appearance of the Fantastic Four and proceeding backward from there. See previous posts for a detailed explanation of my rationale.) Some information presented on the timeline is speculative and some is based on historical accounts or scientific theory, and is noted as such in the text.

Time flies when you’re having… The True History of the Original Marvel Universe!

Part Five: Dark Days

circa 1400 A.D.
The nation of Latveria is founded in the Carpathian Mountains by nobles of the Haasen family, who have emigrated from the German-speaking lands to the north. They wrest the territory from the land barons of western Transylvania and establish their capital city of Haasenstadt.

Vlad Dracula is born in Schassburg, Transylvania, the second son of Vlad Dracul, a.k.a. Vlad the Elder, a Transylvanian nobleman. [Date based on historical accounts]

Vlad the Elder ousts his brother from power and becomes ruler of Transylvania. He allies himself with the Ottoman Turks. [Date based on historical accounts]

Vlad Dracula and his younger brother Radu are captured by Sultan Murad II, leader of the Ottoman Turks, to force Vlad the Elder to adopt policies which favor Turkey. At Murad’s court Dracula learns the effectiveness of extreme cruelty. Radu is eventually tortured to death. During this time, Dracula’s father and older brother Mircea are murdered. [Tomb of Dracula Magazine #2]

Vlad Dracula escapes from Murad’s court and returns home to seize the throne of Transylvania. Dracula rules for eight months before fleeing from the conspirators who had helped kill his father, a cabal led by János Hunyadi. [Tomb of Dracula Magazine #2–3]

circa 1450
Keeping residence in Kamar-Taj, the Ancient One discovers a young man roaming the ruined city, and takes him in as his first apprentice. Over the next two decades, the young man studies under the Ancient One, aiding him in collecting books of black magic, which the Ancient One is stockpiling to keep out of the hands of evil sorcerers. Secretly, the apprentice studies these books to increase his own powers. [Strange Tales v.2 #11] [Date is speculative.]

Dracula returns to Transylvania to ally himself with János Hunyadi, from whom he learns the arts of war. [Tomb of Dracula Magazine #3]

Dracula marries Zofia, a Hungarian noblewoman. The marriage had been arranged by Dracula’s father and Dracula hates his new bride. [Tomb of Dracula #60]

Shortly after the birth of their daughter Lilith, Dracula orders Zofia to leave his sight forever. Zofia gives Lilith to a Gypsy woman named Gretchen to raise, then commits suicide. [Giant-Size Chillers #1]

With the aid of János Hunyadi, Dracula is restored to the Transylvanian throne. Dracula dedicates himself to eradicating the Turks. His violent methods of putting them to death earn him the nickname “Vlad the Impaler.” [Tomb of Dracula Magazine #2]

Dracula marries a woman named Maria, whom he loves deeply. They soon have a son, Vlad Tepulus.

Lord Turac of the Turks leads an army to invade Transylvania and attacks Castle Dracula. Dracula is defeated in battle and mortally wounded by Turac. However, Turac wishes to make an example of Dracula, and so takes his prisoner to the gypsy Lianda to cure his wounds. Lianda turns out to be a vampire, and she drinks Dracula’s blood, making him a vampire also. Rising from the grave three days later, Dracula is recaptured by Turac and witnesses the death of his wife Maria. Breaking his bonds, Dracula slays Turac, turning him into a vampire as well. Realizing that he has become a monster, Dracula leaves his infant son Vlad Tepulus to be raised by Gypsies. [Dracula Lives! #2]

Tired of his ages-long existence, Varnæ, Lord of the Vampires, decides to hand over the reins of power to Dracula. Varnæ commands his servant Nimrod to pose as the leader of the vampires and draws Dracula into a confrontation. Dracula defeats Nimrod and is proclaimed the new Lord of the Vampires. Suddenly, a group of priests raids the gathering and kills Dracula, his first “death” as a vampire. However, Varnæ arranges for Dracula to be resurrected soon after and imparts to Dracula much of his own power by making Dracula drink his ancient blood. Varnæ then commits suicide by exposing himself to direct sunlight. [Dracula Lives! #3, Bizarre Adventures #33]

Blaming the Gypsies for his transformation into a vampire, Dracula slaughters many of them, including Gretchen’s son. In revenge, Gretchen casts a spell transforming Dracula’s daughter Lilith into a fully-grown vampire with special powers, such as an immunity to sunlight. Gretchen also casts a spell on Lilith whereby if she is killed, her soul would be transported into the body of an innocent woman who wants her father dead. Lilith sets out on her mission of vengeance to destroy her father, and she and Dracula will battle a number of times over the following centuries. [Giant-Size Chillers #1]

Dracula begins amassing a collection of vampire “wives,” many of whom take up residence in his castle. He generally considers these undead women to be expendable.

Dracula finally gains his revenge on Sultan Murad II, luring him to Castle Dracula and killing him, tossing the sultan’s corpse to the Turkish soldiers waiting outside. [Tomb of Dracula Magazine #2]

Dracula extends his mortal power base by cementing his rule throughout Transylvania, and finally drives the Turks from his domain. Dracula also encounters a member of the Van Helsing family, beginning an enmity that will endure for centuries. [Dracula Lives! #12]

Dracula learns of the existence of the Darkhold and its spell to destroy all vampires. Wishing to acquire it for safekeeping, Dracula forces Murgo, a gypsy thief, to steal the book from the Vatican library. However, Cagliostro, a Gypsy sorcerer, intervenes and steals the Darkhold for himself. Though the Latin translation is left behind, the original Darkhold’s whereabouts remain a mystery for centuries. [Dracula Lives! #4]

circa 1470
The Ancient One discovers his apprentice secretly studying the tomes of evil magic they had collected and banishes him from Kamar-Taj. Over the next few centuries, the former apprentice extends his lifespan by absorbing the life energy of evil men. He eventually assumes the name Mister Jip. [Strange Tales v.2 #11] [Date is speculative.]

Dracula loses interest in ruling his human subjects and abdicates his throne. Transylvania eventually falls under foreign rule, but its subsequent rulers generally leave “Count” Dracula alone to do as he pleases. [Dracula Lives! #13]

early 1500s
The H.M.S. Drake, a British ship trying to find a southern passage to the Pacific Ocean, is exploring the Antarctic seas when it strikes an iceberg and sinks. One of the sailors survives, carried by ocean currents into the Savage Land. Exploring this strange jungle, the sailor comes across a giant idol of Garokk, a god worshiped by the tribe of the Sun-People. While drinking from a cup that had been placed in front of the idol, the sailor is discovered by tribesmen and he flees. Eventually, he makes his way back to England, and discovers that the potion he drank has made him immortal. The sailor regards this as a curse as he watches his loved ones grow old and die while he remains perpetually youthful. Over the next few centuries, the sailor searches for a way to end his life. Over time, his skin gradually becomes rock-like, and he comes to be known as the Petrified Man. [Astonishing Tales #3] [Date based on historical accounts.]

Dracula is finally forced to kill his son, Vlad Tepulus, who has spent his life trying to destroy his father. However, Dracula’s grandson has also sworn to destroy him, with the vendetta being passed down through the subsequent generations. [Tomb of Dracula #60]

Solomon Kane is born to a Puritan family in Devonshire, England.

Georg von Frankenstein is killed while trying to save his true love from one of the dragons living beneath his castle. Georg’s brother Hans then inherits Castle Frankenstein and soon discovers there are other dragons inhabiting the caverns. [Savage Sword of Conan #22]

circa 1550
The mystic who will be known as the Ancient One joins an old order of sorcerers who are all dedicated to protecting the people of Earth from black magic. Eventually, his prowess is so great that he is visited by Eternity, the manifestation of the cosmos itself. He is the first human to receive such a visitation, and Eternity presents him with an amulet called the Eye of Agamotto, a powerful magical item created by Earth’s first human Sorcerer Supreme. Using the amulet, the Ancient One first battles Dormammu, the demonic ruler of a mystic realm known only as the Dark Dimension. Over the following centuries, the Ancient One successfully keeps Dormammu out of Earth’s dimension. [Date is speculative]

Returning to England after several years abroad, Solomon Kane saves the residents of Torkertown from a deadly ghost by helping it avenge its own murder. He also witnesses the severed hand of a condemned necromancer strangle the man who turned the sorcerer over to the king’s men. Kane then kills a couple of werewolves outside Torkertown. [Monsters Unleashed #1, Savage Sword of Conan #13–14]

While wandering through the mountains of France, Solomon Kane comes across a dying girl in the woods and vows to hunt down her killer, a notorious bandit known as Le Loup. Over the next few months, Kane kills off Le Loup’s band of thieves, then confronts the master criminal in his hidden lair. After a vicious swordfight, Le Loup escapes into the darkness. Kane distributes the stolen treasure among the local villages, then continues his relentless pursuit. [Marvel Premiere #33]

Solomon Kane tracks Le Loup to a remote African village, where he meets the sorcerer N’Longa. Having become the chieftain’s advisor, Le Loup arranges for Kane and N’Longa to be burned at the stake. However, N’Longa sends his astral form into the corpse of a human sacrifice victim and reanimates it long enough to assassinate the chieftain. Le Loup flees into the jungle, but Kane hunts him down and kills him in another swordfight. Feeling he has finally avenged the French girl’s death, Kane returns to Europe. [Marvel Premiere #34]

Wandering through the Black Forest in Germany, Solomon Kane escapes from a couple of serial killers, both of whom become victims of their own evil ways. Then, with the help of a fellow Englishman named John Silent, Kane battles the devil-worshiping mutant Baron von Staler, ending his series of ritual murders. [Savage Sword of Conan #18–19]

Hearing rumors of dragons, Solomon Kane visits Castle Frankenstein outside the German city of Darmstadt. Discovering that Baron Hans von Frankenstein is trying to appease the monster by offering human sacrifices, Kane forces the baron to accompany him into the caverns to slay the creature. Frankenstein panics and runs away, but Kane manages to kill the dragon and destroy its eggs. [Savage Sword of Conan #22]

Learning that the daughter of a friend has disappeared in Transylvania, Solomon Kane goes there to search for her. He is set upon by Turkish highwaymen, then attacked by a pack of werewolves. Kane is saved from the werewolves by Dracula, who invites the Puritan back to his castle. There, Kane discovers the missing girl has been turned into a vampire. After destroying her with a wooden stake, the outraged Kane battles Dracula and defeats him. However, since Dracula earlier saved his life, Kane feels honor-bound to let his foe go free. [Dracula Lives! #3]

Overcome with guilt at not having destroyed Dracula when he had the chance, Solomon Kane makes his way back to Transylvania. While passing through Romania, Kane is waylaid by a Roman-era succubus whom he inadvertently resurrects. Though he nearly falls victim to her seductive charms, Kane is able to destroy the succubus once and for all. Kane then returns to Castle Dracula and manages to stake the vampire with a wooden crucifix. However, Dracula is inadvertently revived hours later by Gypsy looters. [Savage Sword of Conan #25–26]

After searching for several years for a missing English heiress, Solomon Kane finds her living as a slave in the court of the savage Queen Nakari of the lost Atlantean colony of Negari, located in the mountains of Africa. Though captured, Kane escapes from the dungeons to prevent the Englishwoman from being sacrificed to the false god Nakura. Kane destroys the city’s idol, the Skull of Nakura, with his pistol, causing the mob to riot. In the ensuing violence, Nakari is killed by one of her own subjects. A sudden earthquake annihilates Negari, but Kane and the heiress make it out alive. After returning the heiress to England, Kane joins the crew of Sir Frances Drake and sails to the West Indies. [Savage Sword of Conan #34, 37, 39]

The Latverian nobleman Count Sabbat orders construction begun on a castle for his king, which will overlook the capital city of Haasenstadt. When the 110-room castle is complete, the royal family takes up residence there.

Solomon Kane returns to Africa, where his old friend, the sorcerer N’Longa, presents him with the ancient magical artifact known as King Solomon’s Staff. The staff helps Kane and N’Longa wipe out a colony of African vampires. Kane takes the staff with him as he continues his wanderings. He soon comes upon the tribes of Bogonda, where he wipes out the last of the mythological harpies. Next, coming across a gang of Arab slavers, Kane learns more of the staff’s history from one of their number. Kane is then able to use the staff to destroy a shapeless demon that is accidentally freed from its imprisonment in an ancient crypt by the greedy slavers. [Kull and the Barbarians #2–3, Savage Sword of Conan #53–54, Marvel Preview #19]

Dracula’s diary is stolen and some of his vampiric weaknesses are discovered. Before he can retrieve the diary, though, it is transported to England. He is unable to track it down. [Dracula Lives! #12]

circa 1600
Dracula moves his base of operations to the new Castle Dracula at Borgo Pass in Transylvania.

Dracula encounters Countess Elizabeth Bathory, a sorceress. Immune to his control, she proposes an alliance, but then double-crosses him. Dracula soon has his revenge and sees to it that the “Blood Countess” dies a horrible death. [Dracula Lives! #4]

circa 1610
After a lifetime of wandering the world, Solomon Kane returns home to Devonshire, intending to live out his remaining days in peace. However, when he learns that his childhood sweetheart, Bess Morgan, has died, he leaves his hometown to resume his wandering. [Savage Sword of Conan #20, 162]

An alien from the extradimensional world known as “The Coconut Grove” visits Earth and meets the English playwright William Shakespeare. Shakespeare bases his character Ariel in his play The Tempest on this alien. [Fallen Angels #7] [Date based on historical accounts.]

Sir Francis Bacon, an English mystic, meets the time-travelers Doctor Strange and Clea, and presents them with the manuscript for his book New Atlantis. [Doctor Strange v.2 #17]

The Marquis de Rais translates The Thanatosian Tomes, a book of black magic. [Marvel Premiere #4]

The Dreamqueen encounters the astral form of Nanquato, the shaman of the Chickaqua Indian tribe, while he is searching through numerous dimensions for a god willing to end the drought that threatens his village. She tricks him into taking a magical totem back to Earth, through which she can torment Nanquato’s people with terrifying illusions and use their fear to build a bridge between the two realms. Though the Dreamqueen manages to pass a mystic weapon through the still-forming portal, Nanquato is killed by one of his tribe’s warriors before she herself can cross over to Earth. While the tribe buries their shaman alongside the mystic weapon in a cairn, Nightmare appears to the Dreamqueen and reveals that he foiled her plan by forewarning the warrior in a dream. He intends to keep her trapped in her pocket dimension, he reveals, so he can enjoy her suffering. [Alpha Flight #67]

An English religious leader, Caleb Starke, leads his sect to escape persecution by settling in a remote valley on the coast of Massachusetts. Their town is named Starkesboro in his honor. Eventually, an ancient totem is found that activates the residents’ latent genetic heritage from the Serpent Men, causing them to mutate into more reptilian forms and come under the domination of the demon Sligguth. [Marvel Premiere #4–5]

Rupert Kemp, England’s 7th Baron Darkmoor, turns to sorcery when his lover, Demelza, is burned at the stake as a witch. When he sells his soul to a demon passing itself off as “Satan” in exchange for power and immortality, the devil fulfills the bargain by arranging for Kemp to become a vampire. [Super Spider-Man and Captain Britain #235]

Braddock Manor is constructed in the countryside some miles northwest of London, England. [Mighty World of Marvel #16]

Dracula travels to America for the first time, visiting Salem, Massachusetts. He falls in love with a woman named Charity Brown, the first time he has felt such emotion for a woman since the death of his wife Maria. As a result, Dracula’s dealings with women begin to take on a more sensual tone. While in the area, Dracula turns a West Indian woman named Tituba into a vampire. [Dracula Lives! #1]

Cotton Mather, a servant of the ancient wizard known as the Dark Rider, arrives in Salem, Massachusetts. He seeks practitioners of magic so his master can feed on their mystical energies. To flush out his victims, Mather incites a wave of anti-witch hysteria. [Marvel Team-Up #42]

The combination of Tituba turning several other people into vampires and Cotton Mather’s rabble-rousing leads to the Salem Witch Trials. During these events, Cotton Mather and the Dark Rider battle the time-traveling superheroes Spider-Man, the Scarlet Witch, the Vision, and Moondragon, as well as Doctor Doom. [Marvel Team-Up #41–44]

Feeling persecuted, a number of witches from New England decide to isolate themselves. Founding a small town in what is today Colorado, these practitioners of the occult name their town New Salem to remind them of the persecution they have suffered. [Fantastic Four #186]

A family of seafaring Dutch settlers in America begins construction of a mansion on the shore of Breakstone Lake, in the Salem Center area of New York. The mansion will remain in the family’s hands up to the present day.

Part Six: The Age of Elegance

1700 A.D.
The Massachusetts Academy, a private preparatory school, is founded in Snow Valley, Massachusetts.

The Hellfire Club, a social organization for the elite of British society, is founded in England. It is a pleasure club that offers its members indulgences that violate the moral standards of society, but also serves as a means for its members to pool their resources to influence England’s political and economic matters. [Date based on historical accounts]

Dracula encounters the female pirate captain known as Hellyn deVill and foils her plan to steal a locket that once belonged to his wife Maria. Dracula exposes Hellyn as a witch hag and leaves her to the mercy of her pirate crew. [Dracula Lives! #7]

Spaceships from the planet Galador enter the area of space known as the Dark Nebula on a peaceful expedition. They are attacked by the Dire Wraiths, who use their sorcery to summon Deathwing, a mystical entity of enormous size and power, which consumes the Galadorian spaceships whole, leaving those inside burned and disfigured. The Prime Director of Galador then asks for volunteers to become cyborg warriors who can withstand the rigors of outer space to hunt down and punish the Dire Wraiths. Rom, the first to volunteer for the program, becomes one of the hundreds of Galadorians that risk their humanity to be transformed into Spaceknights. The organic remains of the cyborgs are kept preserved on Galador so that once the war is over, they can be returned to their original humanoid forms. In the major battle against the Dire Wraiths, the Deathwing is destroyed, along with the bulk of the Dire Wraith fleet. Rom, who distinguishes himself during the battle for his courage and bravery, warns the Prime Director that Galador cannot be safe until all Dire Wraiths are hunted down and banished to the extradimensional realm of Limbo. Rom and the other Spaceknights are ordered to seek out and destroy all Dire Wraith outposts and to use their technology to banish them from the universe forever.

Dracula leaves his castle at Borgo Pass in Transylvania and relocates to France. During his absence, a number of noblemen such as Baron Grigori Russoff take over parts of his domain. [Tomb of Dracula #33]

Cagliostro, who has established himself as an important figure in the court of the French king Louis XV, is not pleased that Dracula is now moving in the same circles. Though he no longer possesses the Darkhold, Cagliostro hatches numerous plots to destroy Dracula, without success. [Dracula Lives! #3]

A number of English immigrants to America set up the American headquarters of the Hellfire Club on Manhattan Island in New York.

Victor Frankenstein is born in Naples, Italy, to Alphonse and Caroline Frankenstein.

American diplomat Benjamin Franklin is accompanied on his journey from England back to Philadelphia by the time-traveling Doctor Strange and Clea. [Doctor Strange v.2 #18]

The West Coast Avengers materialize when their time machine malfunctions. Since the defective device will only transport them into the past, the time-lost heroes decide to go back to ancient Egypt, in hopes of meeting up with the Fantastic Four when they first battled Rama-Tut. [West Coast Avengers #21]

When their second child, Ernest Frankenstein, is born, Alphonse and Caroline Frankenstein settle down at an estate in Geneva, Switzerland. They are joined by their young ward, Elizabeth Lavenza, an orphan from Milan, Italy. Victor and Elizabeth become very close, and the parents hope they will one day marry.

The 20th-century super-heroine Captain Marvel (Monica Rambeau) is sent back in time by the sorceress Marie LeVeau, where she encounters both Cagliostro and Dracula. After a brief scuffle with Dracula while trying to obtain a sample of his vampire blood, she returns to her own time. [Marvel Fanfare #42]

Dracula’s conflict with Cagliostro reaches its climax, and Dracula defeats the sorcerer’s spells and turns Cagliostro’s wife into a vampire. Cagliostro’s attempts at revenge come to nothing. [Dracula Lives! #5]

Victor Frankenstein becomes obsessed with the works of medieval alchemists such as Albertus Magnus, Cornelius Agrippa, and Paracelsus, especially their search for the “elixir of life.”

The French Revolution forces Dracula to flee France and he returns to Castle Dracula in Transylvania. He quickly regains control over most of his lost territory. Cagliostro also leaves France and searches for a means to cure his wife of vampirism. [Dracula Lives! #6]

After witnessing the power of lightning firsthand, Victor Frankenstein abandons the alchemists to take up the study of modern science.

The Serpent Crown is stolen from Emperor Naga and taken to Antarctica by Lemurian rebels led by Pyscatos and his brother Bekkit. Once in Antarctica, the rebels change themselves into air-breathers through chemical means and establish a settlement amongst the ancient technology of Pangea. Eventually, Bekkit leaves to live among the human race, where he spreads tales of his people, who come to be called “the Ancients.” Meanwhile, growing infirm, Pyscatos finally succumbs to the power of the Serpent Crown and begins wearing it. When Bekkit finally returns home, he finds his people have fallen under the influence of Set. Bekkit is killed and Pyscatos, realizing what a monster he has become, overloads their city’s generators. The resulting explosion causes an avalanche that wipes out the Ancients and buries the Serpent Crown under tons of ice and snow. For centuries, Naga has his agents roam the oceans searching for the Serpent Crown. Without it, Naga is no longer immortal, but he retards his aging process through alchemical means. [Sub-Mariner #10, Daredevil Annual #5]

William Frankenstein is born in Geneva, Switzerland, to Alphonse and Caroline Frankenstein.

Weeks after his mother dies of scarlet fever, Victor Frankenstein leaves Geneva to attend the University of Ingolstadt in Bavaria, where he is soon recognized as a brilliant student of chemistry and biology. One of his professors renews Victor’s interest in the alchemists, suggesting their esoteric wisdom could be combined with the scientific method to perform wondrous feats.

Victor Frankenstein discovers a means of reanimating dead tissue and begins constructing an eight-foot-tall human figure out of the parts of a dozen corpses. Believing he has discovered the key to immortality, he works obsessively on his secret project, driving himself to the point of nervous exhaustion. [Frankenstein #1]

Victor Frankenstein succeeds in animating his cadaverous creature. Horrified by what he has done, the young scientist rejects his creation, leaving it to wander off into the surrounding forests. Frankenstein’s Monster tries to scratch out a meager living there, but is shunned by all other humans as well. [Frankenstein #1]

In an attempt to make Baron Grigori Russoff give up his stolen land, Dracula kills Russoff’s wife Louisa. While attempting to rescue her from Castle Dracula, Russoff discovers she has died and kills Dracula by impaling him with a wooden stake. Russoff then rescues Lydia, a woman held prisoner at the castle. However, Lydia is a werewolf and eventually changes shape and bites Russoff, inflicting him with lycanthropy. Although Russoff’s children are already born, the disease is mystically transmitted to his descendants and awaits a supernatural catalyst to activate it. Dracula is later brought back to life, and goes about installing a number of death traps in his castle to deal with intruders. [Werewolf by Night #15]

When his youngest brother, William, is murdered, Victor Frankenstein leaves the University of Ingolstadt and returns to Geneva. He is horrified to discover that his Monster has committed the crime and framed the family’s servant-girl, Justine Moritz. Victor is consumed with guilt when Justine is executed, but he knows no one would believe his incredible tale. He retreats into the Alps, where the Monster confronts him and demands a mate. Giving in to the creature’s threats, Victor agrees to create a female monster. [Frankenstein #1–2]

Having set up a laboratory in a remote house on the Orkney Islands of northern Scotland, Victor Frankenstein assembles a female figure out of numerous dead women, some of whom are murdered by the Monster for their organs. However, fearing that he would be the creator of a monster race, Frankenstein destroys the creature moments after animating it. He flees to Ireland, but his vengeful Monster murders his traveling companion and frames Victor for the crime. Languishing in prison, Victor suffers another nervous breakdown. [Frankenstein #2]

Victor Frankenstein is released from prison due to his father’s efforts to clear his name. They return to Geneva, where Victor and Elizabeth are finally married. That night, however, the Monster sneaks into the bedroom and strangles Elizabeth to death. A few days later, Alphonse Frankenstein dies from the grief. Victor suffers another psychotic break, but soon pulls himself together and swears to hunt down and destroy his murderous creation. [Frankenstein #3]

Pursuing the Monster to the Arctic, Victor Frankenstein dies from exposure aboard the ship of Captain Robert Walton, to whom he tells his story. Distraught over his creator’s death, the Monster attempts suicide on the frozen wastes. However, he eventually comes across a remote tribe of Neanderthal-like people who accept him as one of their own. When the tribe is massacred by their enemies, the Monster drags their chief’s body ten miles across the ice to give him a proper funeral. However, the funeral pyre weakens the ice, sending Frankenstein’s Monster plunging into the Arctic Ocean, where he slips into suspended animation. [Frankenstein #3–4]

When Victor Frankenstein’s body is returned to Geneva, his brother Ernest becomes the new Baron von Frankenstein. He uses his inheritance to buy a remote 500-year-old castle in the Swiss Alps, where he takes up residence. The dilapidated structure then comes to be known as Castle Frankenstein.

circa 1801
The Atlanteans encounter a group of Deviant refugees, who teach the Atlanteans the rudiments of technology.

The Uranian Eternals successfully verify their grand unified theory of everything. However, the answer to the meaning of life effectively eliminates all sense of intellectual challenge, and the Eternals become increasingly depressed and suicidal. However, because of their immortal nature, it is almost impossible for them to terminate their own existences. [Quasar #2]

A race of extraterrestrial explorers decides to test the human race before making first contact. Having observed the planet for decades, they create a sophisticated robot in the form of the Frankenstein Monster. However, after being sent down to Earth, the robot malfunctions and goes on a violent rampage. The aliens chase the robot into the Arctic, where the extreme cold forces it to shut down. Remorseful, the aliens cancel their mission and withdraw. Over time, a thick coating of ice forms around the inert robot. [Uncanny X-Men #40]

Having read the letters Captain Robert Walton sent to his sister, Margaret Saville, Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley publishes Victor Frankenstein’s tale as Frankenstein, or, The Modern Prometheus. [Frankenstein #13]

circa 1830
Cagliostro comes to New Orleans, by way of Haiti, to steal the secrets of voodoo from the sorceress Marie LeVeau. He soon becomes her lover, and shares with her the secret of immortality, which he learned from the Darkhold. However, the spell he gives her is incomplete, and she continues to age at a very slow rate. [Dracula Lives! #2]

Abraham Van Helsing is born in the Netherlands.

Occult researcher Friedrich von Juntz publishes the book Unaussprechlichen Kulten (known in English as Nameless Cults), which contains much information about the Pre-Cataclysmic and Hyborian Ages, as well as various cults and the demonic entities they worship. [Marvel Premiere #4]

circa 1840
The man who will one day be known as the Yellow Claw is born in mainland China. Growing up, he becomes a superb alchemist and uses a secret process to greatly extend his lifespan. Similarly, the man who will come to be known as Fu Manchu is born in China and is raised to be a master of many disciplines.

The Terror and the Erebus, two ships searching for a northern passage to the Pacific Ocean, become stuck in the Arctic ice. With supplies running low, Captain F. R. Crozier decides to lead the remnants of his crew south on foot to civilization. Many men die on the arduous trek. Finally, Crozier downs a potion to slow his bodily functions, hoping that his crew will abandon his body until his life functions return to normal with the spring thaw. Unfortunately, his men decide to bury him, and although Crozier is conscious, he is completely paralyzed. Crozier will remain buried alive for more than a century. [Alpha Flight #37]

circa 1850
The undersea province of Skarka attempts an invasion of Atlantis. The invaders are repelled but the city of Atlantis takes heavy damage and Emperor Immanu is killed. The new Emperor of Atlantis, Thakorr, leads the population to the South Atlantic and founds a new capital city off the coast of Antarctica.

Spencer Keen, the son of a noted chemist who works at a midwestern college, is exposed to a mysterious form of blue energy when his father’s laboratory is destroyed by a tornado. He is thrown into suspended animation and buried along with the many victims of the natural disaster. [Mystic Comics #1]

Dracula has his first encounter with Abraham Van Helsing, a Dutch university professor visiting Transylvania. Dracula turns Van Helsing’s wife Elisabeth into a vampire, but with the help of a group of vampire hunters, Van Helsing destroys her immediately. [Dracula Lives! #3]

In Vienna, Dracula becomes infatuated with an American student named Annabelle St. John. He sails to the United States to court her at her home in Virginia. After saving her family from an attack by Union soldiers, Dracula turns Annabelle into a vampire and she returns to Transylvania with him. However, Dracula eventually tires of his latest undead bride. [Tomb of Dracula Magazine #6]

late 1860s
Dracula and his daughter Lilith negotiate a truce, agreeing never to cross paths again. [Giant-Size Chillers #1]

Matt Hawk, a young lawyer in Tombstone, Texas, comes under the tutelage of an aged gunfighter, Ben Dancer. Hawk learns to be a superior gunslinger, as well as an accomplished horseback rider and master of the lasso. However, Dancer warns Hawk to keep his accomplishments secret, fearing that if they became public knowledge he would be challenged by no end of gunslingers looking to make a name for themselves. Hawk decides to assume the masked identity of the Two-Gun Kid whenever he has to use his guns. As the Two-Gun Kid, Hawk battles a number of criminals. [Two-Gun Kid #60]

early 1870s
Blaine Colt, son of a murdered rancher from Abilene, Wyoming, avenges his father’s death. However, a member of the murderer’s gang tells the local sheriff that Colt murdered his boss in cold blood. Colt fears that no one would believe that he had challenged his father’s murderer to a fair fight and flees the town. Now calling himself Kid Colt, he wanders the American southwest as an outlaw. Nevertheless, Kid Colt uses his extraordinary skills as a gunfighter to aid the poor and defend the innocent from criminals. [Kid Colt, Outlaw #11]

Johnny Bart, known as the Rawhide Kid, dedicates himself to fighting evildoers. He seeks out some of the worst criminals in the American West and defeats them. During one of his adventures, the Rawhide Kid injures one of his opponents in a duel. Despite evidence that it was a fair fight, the local sheriff still insists on arresting him. The Rawhide Kid flees in protest and from that time on is considered an outlaw. Despite this, the Rawhide Kid continues to fight crime and bring evildoers to justice. [Rawhide Kid #17]

Frontier schoolteacher Carter Slade uncovers a plot by land baron Jason Bartholemew to kill homesteaders. Carter is gunned down by the killers but is found by a boy named Jamie Jacobs. Before Jacobs can get Slade to town for medical treatment, they are discovered by Sioux Indians. When the Sioux shaman, Flaming Star, meets Slade, he becomes convinced that Slade is the champion foretold by the gods. Flaming Star restores Slade to health and provides him with phosphorescent dust from a meteor that enables Slade to become the mysterious Phantom Rider. In his new identity, Slade brings Jason Bartholemew to justice, then goes on to become the most successful masked crimefighter of the Old West. [The Ghost Rider #1]

A young man of Cheyenne heritage, called Johnny Wakely by his white adoptive parents, encounters the Native American god Owayodata and is charged with becoming the legendary champion called Red Wolf. Alongside a wolf named Lobo, Red Wolf fights against injustice and oppression. [Marvel Spotlight #1]

The Inhuman Agon is elected to head the Inhumans’ Genetics Council, and thus becomes ruler of the Inhumans. During his reign, Agon discovers that fellow council member Phaeder is performing illegal experiments on clones. Phaeder is barred from the Council. After faking his own death, Phaeder exiles himself from Attilan. [Marvel Two-in-One #72]

Hearing of a fabulous treasure unearthed from an ancient Indian burial ground, a gunfighter known as Pariah travels to the town of Whispering Wells, New Mexico. When he arrives, Pariah finds everyone in town dead. In the saloon, he discovers the skeleton of the prospector, still clutching a large, glowing gemstone. Pariah takes the gemstone, but it proves to be a mystic crystal that houses demonic spirits. The spirits keep Pariah alive long after his body has become a desiccated husk, but he provides insufficient lifeforce to allow them to leave the remote ghost town. [Hulk #268]

Thor, Hawkeye, and Moondragon journey back in time to battle Kang the Conqueror. The three heroes of the future team up with the Two-Gun Kid, Kid Colt, the Rawhide Kid, the Phantom Rider, and the Ringo Kid to defeat Kang. The Two-Gun Kid and Hawkeye become fast friends, and he travels with the three superheroes to the 20th century. [Avengers #141–143]

The Two-Gun Kid returns from the 20th century and resumes his life as before.

Loki, Asgardian god of mischief, arranges for the theft of the golden apples of Idunn, fruit which the Asgardians eat to retain their youth and immortality. Without the apples, the gods begin to grow old and die. However, the troll whom Loki employed to steal the apples has a change of heart and smuggles the apples to Earth, waiting for the thunder god Thor to find him. Thor recovers the apples and returns with them to Asgard. [Thor #370]

Lionell and Lillian von Loont, a couple from England, are riding through the Transylvanian Alps when their carriage hits a bump and runs off the mountain road. Lionell is killed, and Lillian roams the Balkan woods for days before stumbling across the village ruled by Esteban Diablo. Taken in and cured of her injuries by Diablo, she and Diablo soon fall in love. Diablo reveals his alchemical secrets to her and begins training her in his sorcerous ways. [Alpha Flight #21]

Fed up with Diablo’s tyrannical rule, a number of peasants imprison him within a massive crypt. The elixir of immortality which has kept Diablo alive for centuries allows him to survive entombment, and he will remained trapped for nearly ninety years. Lillian von Loont, witnessing the imprisonment of her lover, kills Diablo’s servant who had betrayed him. Lillian then makes her way back to England, using her dead husband’s fortunes to set up her own alchemical lab. [Alpha Flight #21]

The Phantom Rider teams up with his brother, Marshal Lincoln Slade, against the criminal Reverend Reaper. After being pursued into a cave, Reaper sets off a sequence of explosions that cause a cave-in. However, Reaper himself is caught in one of the explosions and is killed. Lincoln Slade escapes serious injury, but the Phantom Rider is mortally wounded. Near death, the Phantom Rider reveals his true identity to his brother and asks him to take his place. Lincoln Slade becomes the second Phantom Rider, but also slowly begins going mad. [Western Gunfighters #6]

The West Coast Avengers appear when their time machine becomes damaged and can only move them backwards in time. The Two-Gun Kid is thus reunited with his friend from the future, Hawkeye. Meanwhile, the new Phantom Rider falls in love with the Avenger called Mockingbird, and when the team is about to leave this time for the past, he seizes her from their time machine and knocks her out. The Avengers are unable to stop their dematerialization. The Phantom Rider then uses an Indian potion to make Mockingbird fall in love with him. Two-Gun Kid and the Rawhide Kid, realizing what Phantom Rider has done, attack him but are defeated by Mockingbird. Once the potion wears off, however, Mockingbird realizes she has been raped and attacks Phantom Rider. During the battle, she lets the Phantom Rider fall from a cliff to his death. Shortly afterwards, all the West Coast Avengers return to their proper time. [West Coast Avengers #18–23]

circa 1880
Dracula is slain by a retired American marshal who uses a shotgun to pump the vampire full of silver buckshot. [Dracula Lives! #13]

Doctor Strange, Nick Fury, and Dum-Dum Dugan travel through time to prevent an Apache sorcerer known as Redblade from creating an army of superhuman warriors and changing the course of history. [Marvel Fanfare #49]

Denis Nayland Smith is born in England. [Master of Kung Fu #18]

The Great Beasts remain trapped behind the dimensional barrier, but one of them, Ranaq the Devourer, can manifest on Earth by taking possession of a human host. Ranaq possesses a citizen of Calgary, Alberta, Canada named Zebediah Chase, but is defeated by time-traveling members of Alpha Flight, with help from Chase’s teenage friend Lucas Stang. [Alpha Flight #19]

Silvio Manfredi is born in Sicily.

Seminary student Caleb Hammer begins to turn his back on religion when his wife Thea is mistakenly killed by a drunken gunman. Hammer travels to Chicago to visit his brother Issak. [Marvel Premiere #54]

Winston J. Kranpuff is born. [Solo Avengers #11]

Lillian von Loont, experimenting in her alchemical lab, discovers the secret of transforming lead into gold. Realizing this is the secret to immortality, Lillian journeys back to Transylvania to take revenge on those who had imprisoned Diablo. Over the next few years, Lillian travels the world to track down those who had imprisoned her lover. Eventually, she sets up residence on Tamarind Island off the coast of Vancouver Island, Canada, where she will become known as Gilded Lily. [Alpha Flight #21]

When the Chicago police attack striking factory workers, a riot erupts and Issak Hammer is killed. Failing to save his brother, Caleb Hammer is devastated by the loss. [Marvel Premiere #54]

Caleb Hammer joins the Pinkerton Detective Agency, but a disastrous early case leads him to eschew the use of guns. [Marvel Premiere #54]

Dracula is finally resurrected, but the many minute particles of silver lodged in his body greatly weaken him, causing him to age rapidly if he goes too long without ingesting a large quantity of blood. [Tomb of Dracula Magazine #3]

The international crime syndicate known as the Maggia first comes to the attention of the American public, having expanded their sphere of influence from Europe.

Caleb Hammer is consumed with guilt when his attempt to frighten two fugitives out of their hiding place leads to the murder of an epileptic boy. [Marvel Premiere #54]

Montgomery Falsworth is born in England to Lord and Lady Falsworth.

Wishing to relocate to London, England, Dracula hires a British attorney, Peter Hawkins, who dispatches his junior partner, Jonathan Harker, to Transylvania. Once all the papers have been signed, Dracula leaves Harker trapped in his castle and sails to England, where he takes possession of Carfax Abbey. Dracula begins feeding off a young socialite, Lucy Westenra, who is a friend of Harker’s fiancée, Mina Murray. Westenra’s strange symptoms prompt her friend Dr. John Seward to call in his former mentor, Professor Abraham Van Helsing, who recognizes the work of a vampire. Once Westenra becomes a vampire herself, Van Helsing recruits her fiancé, Arthur Holmwood, his American friend Quincey Morris, and Dr. Seward to destroy her. Meanwhile, Harker escapes from Castle Dracula, and Murray travels to Transylvania to help him recover from his ordeal. Before returning to England, the couple marries. However, Dracula targets Mina as his next victim and forces her to ingest the vampiric ichor in his veins, placing her under his mental domination. Van Helsing and his friends vow to hunt down Dracula and destroy him, prompting Dracula to abandon his plans and retreat to Transylvania. The vampire hunters pursue him, and Morris is killed battling Dracula’s gypsy servants. Wearied by the particles of silver still imbedded in his body, Dracula tricks his enemies into thinking they have destroyed him. Later, Dracula finds that Van Helsing invaded his castle and destroyed his last three undead brides, including Annabelle St. John, and swears vengeance. [Dracula Lives! #5–11, Legion of Monsters #1, Tomb of Dracula Magazine #3]

Ben Parker is born in Brooklyn, New York.

Karl Kaufman is born in Oshkosh, Wisconsin.

Phineas T. Horton is born.

John Falsworth is born in England to Lord and Lady Falsworth.

May Reilly is born in Brooklyn, New York.

Quincy Harker is born in London, England to Jonathan and Mina Harker.

Arnim Zola is born on Weisshorn Mountain in Switzerland.

Gregor Russoff is born in Transylvania to Baron Russoff, a descendant of Baron Gregori Russoff.

Leonard McKenzie is born.

The English writer Bram Stoker comes into possession of Dracula’s diary, stolen from the vampire’s castle some three hundred years ago. Obtaining Abraham Van Helsing’s journal entries and other material related to Dracula’s experience in Britain, Stoker writes a novel about Dracula.

Nathaniel Richards is born.

Learning that Dracula has been resurrected, Abraham Van Helsing returns to Castle Dracula, finds the vampire lying in his coffin, and drives a wooden stake through his heart. Later, Dracula’s coffin is moved into a remote cave. The entrance to the cave is then sealed by a massive stone in hopes that Dracula will remain trapped within forever. [Tomb of Dracula #1–2, Tomb of Dracula Magazine #3]

Bram Stoker’s novel Dracula is published.

The Daily Bugle, a New York City newspaper, is founded by William Walter Goodman.

George Stacy is born.

Buster Henderson and Elaine Willoughby are born in Christiansboro, Virginia.

Frankenstein’s Monster is revived from suspended animation by Captain Robert Walton’s great-grandson, but before the expedition can leave the Arctic, their ship strikes an iceberg and sinks. The Monster saves Walton and two members of his crew from drowning, but they all soon freeze to death on the icy wastes. The Monster builds a raft that carries him to Norway, where he rescues a beautiful woman who has been tied to the mast of a burning boat. The woman, called Lenore, convinces the Monster that her townspeople have been possessed by demons. However, the Monster soon discovers that Lenore is, in fact, a werewolf and is forced to kill her. [Frankenstein #1–5]

In search of his creator’s descendants, the Monster makes his way south to Castle Frankenstein in Switzerland, only to find it has been abandoned for twenty years. The castle has been taken over by a Colonel Blackstone, who is using a demonic giant spider he found there to turn captured men into zombies to serve him. Blackstone takes the Monster prisoner, but he breaks free, flooding the castle in the process. Blackstone and his zombies are drowned, as well as the spider-demon. From there, the Monster wanders east into Transylvania, where he is taken in by a gypsy caravan. He travels with them for several weeks, until one of the gypsies tricks him into removing the boulder that stands in front of the cave in which Dracula is buried. The gypsy revives Dracula, but the Frankenstein Monster kills her and is then able to drive a wooden stake through Dracula’s heart. During the battle, the Monster’s vocal cords are paralyzed. [Frankenstein #6–9]

The Monster is then found by Vincent Frankenstein and his hunchback servant, Ivan. They smuggle the Monster into London, England, but when he realizes they mean to betray him, the Monster attacks them. After a brutal battle, Ivan is about to behead the Monster with a sword when Frankenstein shoots him in the back to stop him. The Monster goes after Frankenstein with the sword, only to be shot twice in the chest. When he recovers, the Monster drags himself out of the laboratory and wanders north through Great Britain until he falls off a cliff into the North Sea. The frigid waters throw him back into a state of suspended animation. [Frankenstein #10–12]

Basil Frankenstein is born in London, England, to Vincent and Lenore Frankenstein. Lenore dies in childbirth and, holding Vincent responsible, her lady’s maid Betty shoots Vincent in the heart, killing him. Betty then takes the baby out of the country and raises him as her own son. [Frankenstein #11]

Having immigrated to the United States with his family, Silvio Manfredi joins the New York branch of the Maggia.

Winston J. Kranpuff manifests the mutant ability to project his mind into another person’s body. He uses this power to “possess” people purely for personal gain and eventually becomes one of the world’s richest men. [Solo Avengers #11]

Johann Schmidt is born in Germany to Hermann and Martha Schmidt. His mother dies in childbirth and his father tries to drown him, but the attending physician intervenes. When his father commits suicide soon after, Schmidt is sent to a crowded orphanage. [Captain America #298]

Dracula is revived yet again. He tracks down Abraham Van Helsing and kills him. Dracula’s body will soon reject the minute traces of silver that weaken him, restoring him to full strength. [Tomb of Dracula #20]

Isaac Christians is born in Christiansboro, Virginia, to Ezekial and Mary Christians.

Wolfgang von Strucker is born in Bavaria, Germany, the son of a Prussian nobleman.

Fah Lo Suee is born to the international criminal mastermind Fu Manchu and his Russian-born wife.

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